IWPR Research News Roundup – January 2019

IWPR Research News Roundup – January 2019

RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS 

The Class of 2019 are More Likely to be Older and Have Children 

Jillian Berman |  | February 2019

Like 40% of students who enter college, life got in the way of Shawnte’ Cain completing her degree. Cain, 39, began her college career in 1997 at Wayne State University in Detroit. She successfully made it through three years at the school, but just as she could see her degree on the horizon, her grandmother fell ill. School fell by the wayside as Cain cared for her and her own financial obligations rose.

Citing: Completing College – National 2018 – by NSC Research Center, December, 2018

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How the 1% Profit Off of Racial Economic Inequality

Derick Asante-Muhammad and Chuck Collins |  | January 2019

As people of color make up a larger share of the diversifying US population, that persistent racial wealth divide is bringing down America’s median wealth. But while wealth at the middle falters, it’s soaring at the top. In other words, the 1% are profiting off ongoing racial economic inequality. All this is happening against a backdrop of seemingly good economic news. Black and Latino unemployment rates reached historic lows in 2018, and median income has slowly inched up for all households in the last few years

Citing: Dreams Deferred: How Enriching the 1% Widens the Radical Wealth Divide at Institute for Policy Studies, Jan, 2019

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The Global Gender Gap will Take More Than 100 Years to Close: Here Are the Countries with the Highest and Lowest Gender Gap around the World

Will Martin and Skye Gould |  | January 2019

It will take more than 200 years for economic gender equality to emerge, and 108 years to completely close the global gender gap across politics, health, education, according to the latest report from the World Economic Forum. The WEF’s annual Global Gender Gap Report compares attitudes towards gender equality around the world. It considered factors such as educational opportunities available to each gender, life expectancy, literacy rates, the number of women in professional positions, and in positions of power in each country.

Citing: The Global Gender Gap Report 2018 at World Economic Forum, Dec, 2018

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Millennial Women Are Winning the Jobs Recovery as Men Struggle

Jeanna Smialek |  | January 2019

Her case is far from unique. The share of 25- to 34-year-old women who are employed or looking has staged a sharp turnaround since 2016. The group since December 2015 has accounted for 86 percent of growth in the workforce of prime-working-age women, who are 25- to 54-years-old, and for 46 percent of gains in the prime-age labor pool as a whole.

Citing: Current Employment Statistics Highlights by Analysts of the National Estimates Branch Current Employment Statistic Survey at U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics, Jan 2019

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

The Number of Unionized U.S Workers Edged Lower to the 16.4 Million in 2018

Heidi Shierholz | Economic Policy Institute | January 2019

New data on union membership from the Bureau of Labor Statistics released on Friday showed 16.38 million unionized workers in 2018, down from 16.44 million in 2017. However, because employment of wage and salary workers grew by 1.6 percent between 2017 and 2018, the share of workers represented by a union declined by a more significant amount, from 11.9 percent to 11.7 percent.

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Gender in the Labor Market: the Role of Equal Opportunity and Family- Friendly Policies

Elizabeth L. Doran, Ann P. Bartel, and Jane Waldfogel | National Bureau of Economic Research | December 2018

Although the gender wage gap in the U.S. has narrowed, women’s career trajectories diverge from men’s after the birth of children, suggesting a potential role for family-friendly policies. We provide new evidence on employer provision of these policies. Using the American Time Use Survey, we find that women are less likely than men to have access to any employer-provided paid leave and this differential is entirely explained by part-time status. Using the NLSY97, we find that young women are more likely to have access to specifically designated paid parental leave, even in part-time jobs. Both datasets show insignificant gender differentials in access to employer-subsidized child care and access to scheduling flexibility. We conclude with a discussion of policy implications.

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Female Earnings Inequality: The Changing Role of Family Characteristics on the Extensive and Intensive Margins

David Card & Dean R. Hyslop | National Bureau of Economic Research | December 2018

Although women make up nearly half the U.S. workforce, most studies of earnings inequality focus on men. This is at least in part because of the complexity of modeling both the decision to work (i.e., the extensive margin) and the level of earnings conditional on work (the intensive margin). In this paper we document a series of descriptive facts about female earnings inequality using data for three cohorts in the PSID. We show that inequality in annual earnings of women fell sharply between the late 1960s and the mid-1990s, with a particularly large decline in the extensive margin component. We then fit earnings-generating models that incorporate both intensive- and extensive-margin dynamics to data for the three cohorts. Our models suggest that over 80% of the decline in female earnings inequality can be attributed to a weakening of the link between family-based factors (including the number of children of different ages and the presence and incomes of partners) and the intensive and extensive margins of earnings determination.

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Gender Equality and Poverty Are Intrinsically Linked

Rense Nieuwenhuis, Teresa Munzi, Jorg Neugschwender, Heba Omar, & Flaviana Palmisano | UN Women | December 2018

This discussion paper provides an updated analysis of gendered economic inequality in high- and middle-income countries. A review of the literature demonstrates that such an analysis needs to explicitly recognize that gender, poverty, and (economic) inequality are intrinsically linked. Specifically, the paper addresses two sets of questions: First, how do intra-family resource allocation and distribution patterns both reflect and shape gender inequalities in power and well-being, and what factors—including policy-related ones—can mitigate these inequalities? Second, how do families as gendered institutions contribute to broader socio-economic inequalities, and what can be done to reduce/reverse these inequalities? Using data from the LIS Database, this paper shows considerable differences among 42 countries with respect to how likely women were to have their own income. The period from 2000 to 2010/2014 saw increasing rates of own incomes as well as women’s incomes constituting larger shares in total household income. A key finding is that, in countries where many women have an income of their own, relative poverty rates are lower.

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Big Business Bias: Employment Discrimination and Sexual Harassment at Large Corporations

Philip Mattera | GoodJobsFirst | January 2019

Most of the suits ended in confidential settlements. Looking only at cases with disclosed verdicts or settlements, 189 Fortune 500 companies have paid $1.9 billion in penalties: $356 million in 238 cases resolved by the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, $65 million in 85 cases handled by the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs, and $1.5 billion in 176 private lawsuits. Adding in cases against corporations from the rest of the Fortune 1000, the Fortune Global 500 and the Forbes list of America’s Largest Private companies brings the total of disclosed penalties to $2.7 billion, including $588 million from 329 EEOC actions, $81 million from 117 OFCCP cases, and $2 billion from 234 private lawsuits.

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Americans’ Perspectives on New Retirement Realities and the Longevity Bonus.

Merrill Lynch Bank of American Corporation | January 2019

Age Wave, in partnership with Bank of America Merrill Lynch, undertook nine landmark studies focused on all aspects of life in retirement. To complete this body of work, the Age Wave team reviewed thousands of papers, reports and datasets, conducted over 140 expert interviews and 43 focus groups, surveyed 50,000+ respondents, and put in 70,000+ collective work hours.

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Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Access to and Use of Paid Family and Medical Leave: Evidence from Four Nationally Representative Datasets

Ann P. Bartel et al. | Monthly Labor Review | January 2019

Statistics on overall access to and use of various types of paid family and medical leave for the U.S. workforce are widely available. However, much less is known about disparities in paid-leave access and use by race and ethnicity. This article examines this question, using data from four nationally representative surveys—the American Time Use Survey Leave Module, the Annual Social and Economic Supplement to the Current Population Survey, the National Study of the Changing Workforce, and the Survey of Income and Program Participation. The article’s most consistent finding is that Hispanic workers have lower rates of paid-leave access and use than their White non-Hispanic counterparts.

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Happy Labor Day from IWPR!

Happy Labor Day from IWPR!

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Dear IWPR Supporters and Colleagues,

Today we celebrate Labor Day. As we enjoy the last days of summer, I would like to take a moment to remember the day’s true meaning—a time to honor the contributions workers have made to strengthen the well-being of our country, the struggle for improved pay and working conditions, and the fight that our value be recognized.

As Chair of the Board for the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), I’m proud to be a part of this organization and the important role we play in this on-going effort to improve working conditions and economic security for working families. Women play an essential role in the continued strength and prosperity of this country.

Early this summer, IWPR and the National Domestic Workers Alliance (NDWA) released The Status of Black Women in the United States. The report provides critical data to identify the barriers that Black women face in the workplace and to suggest investments, programs, and public policies that can lead to positive changes for Black women and their families. At the June event, “From Persistence to Power: Facts, Truth, & Equality for Women,” IWPR collaborated with Spelman College and the Wellesley Centers for Women to discuss many of the key-findings for the report. You can watch the entire event online. To read the key-findings and for more in-depth information, you can find the full report and the Executive Summary on IWPR’s website.

IWPR’s work to promote equal pay for women is important to ending poverty and improving income security for families. IWPR researchers estimate that it will take until 2059 for women to finally reach equal pay (2056 for White women, 2124 for Black women, and 2248 for Hispanic women). Black women participate in the labor force at higher rates than White, Hispanic, Asian, and Native American women, with 62.2 percent of Black women in the workforce. With the support of unions, Black women earn 32 percent more than their nonunionized counterparts.

Closing the gender wage gap would increase women’s earnings and add billions of dollars in wage and salary income to each state’s economy and $512.6 billion to the national economy. In The Economic Impact of Equal Pay by State, IWPR takes an in-depth look at the best and worst states for women workers. In the briefing paper, The Impact of Equal Pay on Poverty and the Economy, the increasingly important impact of pay equality is examined. Approximately 25.8 million children in the United States would benefit from the increased earnings of their mothers with equal pay.

The value women workers bring to the economy and the positive changes they make to our country inspire IWPR to continue to produce the reliable research that informs and promotes effective policy. At this time in our country, facts have come under attack in many ways and are challenged like never before. The news media rely on IWPR to provide them with the information necessary to tell the stories and struggles of women across the country. With your support, we can continue to fight back against misinformation and allow the media, policymakers, activists, and supporters like you to see the research for themselves.

I encourage you to take a moment today to contemplate the past, present, and future of working women in this country and how to best support their continuing achievements and struggles. As the Chair of the Board of IWPR, I ask for your support. Please make a donation to the Institute today in honor of a hard-working woman in your life.

 

 

Lorretta Johnson, Chair, IWPR Board of Directors
Secretary-Treasurer, American Federation of Teachers, AFL-CIO

 

 

Job Training and Support Services In-The-News: Week of November 14, 2016

Weekly Roundup of the news on women and supportive services in job training programs.

By Gladys McLean

Job training can provide an entry into family-sustaining jobs and careers. Many women in job training programs, however, face obstacles to success. Wraparound services—such as child care assistance, access to public benefits, and transportation or housing assistance—can help adults, particularly those with caregiving responsibilities, to complete programs that will ultimately improve their economic standing.


November 17, 2016

The Leominster Champion: MWCC programs on target for meeting future job needs

Today, another group of students is receiving its certificates in Industry Readiness from the Advanced Manufacturing program at Mount Wachusett Community College at its Devens campus.

The graduates are a diverse group ranging in age from 19 to 56. Some are looking to begin their careers, while others are looking for a fresh start. What they all have in common is the foresight to take advantage of a free six-week program that gives them the skills needed in today’s advanced manufacturing workplace.

[…]John Henshaw, dean of workplace development at MWCC is also quick to note the MWCC program has an 80 percent placement rate with students.

“We have a proven track record of getting our graduates good jobs,” he said. “Our programs have excellent content, great equipment for hands-on learning, and a dedicated staff of instructors. The value added is that we also provide training, support, and counseling to help graduates find jobs.”

Democrat and Chronicle: Free job training part of $6M grant to MCC

Monroe Community College has been awarded a $6 million federal grant to increase tuition-free education and training programs for in-demand jobs.

[…]This funding will be used to establish and expand innovative partnerships between community colleges and other training providers.

[…] By encouraging regional collaboration and delivering on the promise of tuition-free training at community colleges, these grants will help strengthen local communities across America,” said Labor Secretary Thomas Perez, in a statement about the grants.

November 16, 2016

The Boston Herald: Program aims to help low-income parents get jobs

Community Labor United, a group that collaborates with local trade unions and community groups, is launching a new program to help low-income parents get job training to enter high-paying hospitality and trade jobs, and to get childcare.

The Independent Women’s Project — a partnership with Brookview House, Building Pathways and others — wants to remove obstacles both mothers and fathers face when trying to work, mainly access to affordable childcare to cover their often irregular hours. The program is designed to get construction and hospitality industries and childcare providers to team up and come up with ways to support workers.

 

November 13, 2016

The Union: Retail ready: Jobs training available through new Hospitality House thrift store

For the past two years, Hospitality House has operated a culinary training program in which “students” work in the shelter’s commercial kitchen. Now, there is a new job training program available to HH guests. Earlier this summer, Hospitality House opened a thrift store which is used to teach skills needed to succeed in the retail sales industry.

“We use whatever means we have to help give them job skills,” explained Debbie McDonald, HH Development Director, who oversees education, fundraising and communications.

[…]Hospitality House is the only emergency homeless shelter in Nevada County, offering 54 beds throughout most of the year and expanding to 69 beds in winter. The men, women and children who stay there are referred to as guests. They receive vouchers they can spend at Bread and Roses.

“We are a shelter that provides pathways to housing. We are not a destination. We help people remove obstacles to housing. One of those obstacles can be the lack of job skills,” added McDonald.

November 12, 2016

The Daily News: Kreher’s first farm to join veterans jobs program

Kreher’s Farm in Clarence, a major egg and organic grain producer with operations across western New York, is the first farm in the state to be approved for a new on-the-job agribusiness training initiative for military veterans.

The initiative, an outgrowth of a workgroup formed by Gov. Andrew Cuomo in 2014, takes an identified need for opportunities serving veterans interested in pursuing careers in farming and agriculture. Cornell’s Small Farms Program team paired with the State Department of Veteran’s Affairs to expand existing DVA programs in skilled trades industries like electrical and plumbing.

Job Training and Support Services In-The-News: Week of October 31, 2016


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

Weekly Roundup of the news on women and supportive services in job training programs.

By Gladys McLean

Job training can provide an entry into family-sustaining jobs and careers. Many women in job training programs, however, face obstacles to success. Wraparound services—such as child care assistance, access to public benefits, and transportation or housing assistance—can help adults, particularly those with caregiving responsibilities, to complete programs that will ultimately improve their economic standing.


November 3, 2016

KENS5 San Antonio: New job training program opens on east side

Kendra Franklin and Tamika Young are women on a mission. They say they will finish their training to become Certified Nursing Assistants and then keep right on learning. Franklin said she would like to become a doctor. Young said she wants to inspire her children to pursue higher education and great careers.

They are both involved in a training program sponsored by Alamo Colleges.

[…]It’s called the Eastside Education & Training Center and it has brought new life to an old school building.

The program is located in what used to be Pfeiffer Elementary, an SAISD school.

After a $1.5 million grant-funded upgrade, the new center is expected to welcome its first class of students on November 14.

Students who qualify will receive free tuition, books, supplies, childcare, and transportation assistance

November 2, 2016

Santee Patch: Inmates to Plant Trees in Lakeside Under Job Training Program

A job training program at the East Mesa Detention and Re-Entry Facility is taking root at San Diego County parks. Trees and plants that were cultivated and grown at the jail’s greenhouse will be planted at five parks across the county this month, including the morning of Nov. 3 at El Monte County Park.

The program started in July 2014 to help inmates develop skills and work habits needed to secure honest employment after their release. Gardening can be therapeutic and gives inmates a sense of purpose while serving time behind bars. The work they do for County Parks also helps inmates build healthier connections with the community.

October 31, 2016

The Journal: Learning Center focuses on medical, industrial trades

The Unlimited Learning Center in Cortez has revamped its adult education program to focus on the industrial trades in addition to its career training in the medical fields.

“We offer specific pathways to careers that pay well so people have a better chance of getting a sustainable job in the area,” said director Anne Miller. “We’re open to anyone in the community — people who have been laid off, want to find a new job or go back to school.”

[…] Miller said the Center recognizes there is an education gap for many adults which prevents them from succeeding in the difficult course work and testing required to become certified in medical and industrial trades.

Basic math, English, and science courses for GED and college entrance exams are free. Pell grants are available for college courses. The Learning Center also offers free childcare.

Northern Nevada Business Weekly: Reno retail center gets facelift with the help of Sierra Nevada Job Corps Center students

The retail center just south of the Plumb Lane and South Virginia Street intersection is in the process of getting an upgrade…While the remodeling of retail centers throughout the region has started to become a trend for owners to attract and retain tenants, this particular project has a unique aspect to it.

Coldwell Banker Commercial partnered with Sierra Nevada Job Corps Center to give nearly a dozen students the opportunity to get hands-on construction experience while also paying the students for their work. The students worked under the supervision of Coldwell Banker Commercial’s in-house General Contractor, GPS Property Maintenance & Construction LLC.

The program is for people “who want to get ahead in life,” Mark Huntley, business and community liaison for Sierra Nevada Job Corps Center, said.

They offer 15 trades including culinary arts, electrical, office administration, hotel and lodging, automotive, medical administrative assistant and more. It is a two-year program that also provides students free housing, food and medical care.


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

 

Job Training and Support Services In-The-News: Week of October 24, 2016

Weekly Roundup of the news on women and supportive services in job training programs.

By Gladys McLean

Job training can provide an entry into family-sustaining jobs and careers. Many women in job training programs, however, face obstacles to success. Wraparound services—such as child care assistance, access to public benefits, and transportation or housing assistance—can help adults, particularly those with caregiving responsibilities, to complete programs that will ultimately improve their economic standing.


October 28, 2016

North Kentucky Tribune: Brighton Center 50 Years, 50 Stories; CET student learns she is ‘good enough,’ can be a contributor

As part of its 50th Anniversary Celebration this year, Brighton Center has introduced a “50 Years, 50 Stories” series to highlight some of the customers, volunteers, donors, community partners or supporters who are part of its history.

“I have always had hopes and dreams, but I never believed so many would become a reality” Samantha

I was working a temp job that I hated because it was far too physically strenuous for my body to handle, and a co-worker took the time to notice my pain and asked me why I didn’t get an office job. I replied that I didn’t have the skills, and she told me about CET.

[…]The Conflict Management workshop really impressed upon me the wisdom to say, ‘It’s not you versus me, it’s us versus the problem;’ a perspective which has become common in my household during disagreements

October 27, 2016

Community Idea Stations: Recovery, Job Training and a Network of Support at the Healing Place

Between 65 and 70% of clients who complete the recovery program are still sober one year later, according to staff. Even with a successful recovery model, Healing Place alumni faced another challenge – getting a job, says Development Officer Clara Stokes.

Clara Stokes: Our clients were getting out there, had a year of sobriety under their belt, decided to go get a job which they have to have to sustain themselves and doors were being slammed in their face. They didn’t know how to talk about gaps in in employment so they would self-sabotage and end up back in the Sobering up Center.

After searching the country for effective models, the Healing Place started “Works” specifically designed for people facing barriers to employment. They offer skills assessment, resume building, computer classes and mock interviews. There’s sessions on budgeting and building credit. And, they work on establishing a strong character through communication and conflict resolution.


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

 

Job Training and Support Services In-The-News: Week of October 17, 2016

Weekly Roundup of the news on women and supportive services in job training programs.

By Gladys McLean

Job training can provide an entry into family-sustaining jobs and careers. Many women in job training programs, however, face obstacles to success. Wraparound services—such as child care assistance, access to public benefits, and transportation or housing assistance—can help adults, particularly those with caregiving responsibilities, to complete programs that will ultimately improve their economic standing.


October 18, 2016

LA Daily News: City Council Members Propose Pairing Housing, Job Training for Homeless

Two City Council members Tuesday proposed a pilot program intended to give homeless individuals a better and more permanent path off the streets by matching them up with both job training and housing subsidies.

[…] Each participant would get temporary vouchers to pay for housing at the same time they are receiving training and paid work experience, which is meant to prepare them for a more permanent job.

The council members say their proposal is based on the idea that it might be more effective to provide housing and job assistance together, rather than separately. Those who receive the usual six months of housing assistance may find themselves back on the streets if they cannot secure a stable source of income, while someone who does not have a stable place to stay may find it difficult to maintain a steady job, according to their motion.

October 17, 2016

McDowell News: Manufacturing class seeks new funding

Christal Padgett is one of those in McDowell whose life has been changed because of a class. A single mother of three children, Padgett worked at a scrap metal yard until she fell and broke her foot. She told The McDowell News she wasn’t able to work and couldn’t return to her old job because of this injury. As she was filing for unemployment, Padgett learned about a manufacturing certification class offered through McDowell Technical Community College.

[…] For two years, McDowell Tech has offered this class in manufacturing certification, which is based out of the N.C. Works Career Center on Baldwin Avenue. Those who successfully complete this six-week class are able to make connections with local manufacturers and earn safety certification with the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). They can also earn certification in first-aid/CPR, career readiness and Microsoft Digital literacy and gaining an introduction to advanced manufacturing skills. Plant tours, job interviews, on-the-job training and apprenticeships are also available through this class. The class focuses on helping participants boost their attitude, initiative and attendance, said participants.

Westword: Heritage Food Incubator Comal Opens at TAXI

Comal’s mission goes far beyond providing Denver with home-style Mexican eats; the restaurant is part of a community-outreach project from nonprofit organization Focus Points, aimed at giving residents of the Globeville and Elyria-Swansea neighborhoods the job training they need to move forward with their careers. “Focus Points’ mission is to build communities by strengthening families,” says executive director Steven Moss, and to that end, the organization supports education initiatives, pre-schools, GED programs and economic development opportunities, with the goal of helping people in Denver’s low-income communities find stable jobs with good incomes.

[…] “This is a group of entrepreneurs with a passion for cooking. Focus Points asked: ‘How do we take this to the next level?’ In order to move to the next level, these women needed a kitchen.” says Focus Points’ director of economic and workforce development, Slavica Park.

The organization partnered with Zeppelin Development to secure that kitchen, taking over the old Fuel space. A cohort of community members will spend eight months there learning the nuts and bolts of how to operate a restaurant, with the goal of eventually opening their own restaurants or catering companies, or securing work in higher-end commercial kitchens.

October 15, 2016

New Haven Register: New Haven’s EMERGE serves ex-offender community with jobs, hope

As executive director for EMERGE, Jusino oversees a comprehensive program that, in addition to providing job training for construction, landscaping and property management positions, assists male and female ex-offenders with other services such as high school-level classes, group discussion sessions, parenting groups and job-training services. His program is the only one of its kind in the state.

[…] “All they believe they need is a job,” Jusino said. “Our goal is to kind of play on that. That they need a job to get them to do things they historically have not wanted to do…They don’t want to do literacy, they don’t want to get mental health (assistance), they don’t want to do occupational skills training, they don’t want to begin to explore the process of how they make decisions,” Jusino said.

So in order to get some individuals to buy in to the program, Jusino said they essentially strike a deal with prospective members: They leverage their ability to place them on payroll to participate in the additional services.

The entire process starts with an orientation that usually weeds out a majority of those in attendance. EMERGE is selective, relying on an interviewing process. EMERGE then pays individuals $10.10 an hour to work up to 24 hours a week. They are paid for 24 hours, but must make a 40-hour commitment. The remaining time must be used to attend classes and participate in additional services.


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

5 Things to Know in Advance of Tonight’s Debate

In advance of tonight’s first presidential debate, IWPR helps you get up to speed on these five top women’s policy issues:

  1. Improving Women’s Access to Good Jobs Can Narrow the Wage Gap
  2. A College Affordability Challenge: Declining Availability of Campus Child Care
  3. The Significance of the Gender Wage Gap; Wages among Women of Color are Especially Low
  4. Breadwinner Mothers are Common in Every State, but Policies Need to Catch Up
  5. The Evidence-Based Case for Paid Sick Days and Paid Leave Policies

 

1. Improving Women’s Access to Good Jobs Can Narrow the Wage Gap

>> Read the report, Pathways to Equity: Narrowing the Wage Gap by Improving Women’s Access to Good Middle-Skill Jobs or the Executive Summary. 

Half of the gender wage gap is due to women working in different occupations and sectors than men. Improving women’s access to good middle-skill jobs—in growing sectors, such as manufacturing, IT, and transportation—can help close the wage gap and improve women’s economic security.

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Click to visit womenandgoodjobs.org

Visit womenandgoodjobs.org, to read the report and explore an interactive, searchable database of middle-skills jobs, which helps users identify pools of skilled women workers who could be tapped to fill shortages, ensuring that the economy benefits from the talent of its whole workforce.

2. A College Affordability Challenge: Declining Availability of Campus Child Care

>> Read the briefing paper, Child Care for Parents in College: A State-by-State Assessment

As nearly 5 million undergraduate students raising children return to college this fall, a new IWPR state-by-state and national analysis finds that campus child care is declining in 36 states across the country, and that many states have rules making it difficult for students to get child care subsidies.

For the nearly 9 in 10 (88 percent) student parents living in or near poverty, paying for child care can be an insurmountable obstacle. IWPR’s analysis finds that, rather than assisting students with the high cost of child care, 11 states require college students to also be employed to be eligible for child care subsidies. In 3 states—Arizona, Kentucky, and Washington—parents are required to work at least 20 hours per week in addition to attending school, an amount proven to diminish rates of college completion among students overall, in order to be eligible for subsidies.

3. The Significance of the Gender Wage Gap; Wages among Women of Color are Especially Low

>> Read IWPR’s New Resources on Pay Equity & Discrimination, including Five Ways to Win an Argument about the Gender Wage Gap

IWPR’s updated fact sheet clarifies the most common myths about gender wage gap statistics. IWPR’s researchers note that a pay gap of 79.6 percent accurately describes the pay inequality between men and women in the labor force and reflects a variety of different factors, including: discrimination in pay, recruitment, job assignment, and promotion; lower earnings in occupations mainly done by women; and women’s disproportionate share of time spent on family care, including that they—rather than fathers—still tend to be the ones to take more time off work when families have children.

In fact, the annual wage ratio of 80 percent is actually a moderate estimate of gender pay inequality. Women of color fare much worse, with Black women making 63.3 percent of what White men earn per year and Hispanic women making 54.4 percent.

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In addition, IWPR has found:

  • Women earn less than men in almost every occupation and are four times more likely than men to work in jobs with poverty-level wages.
  • If current trends continue, women will not receive equal pay until 2059, according to a related IWPR analysis of trends in earnings since 1960.
  • If women earned the same as comparable men—men who are of the same age, have the same level of education, work the same number of hours, and have the same urban/rural status—poverty among working women would be cut in half and the US economy would grow by $482.2 billion.

4. Breadwinner Mothers are Common in Every State, but Policies Need to Catch Up

>> Read the quick figures, Breadwinner Mothers by Race/Ethnicity and State

A new IWPR national and state-by-state analysis of breadwinner moms finds that four in five Black mothers and two in three Native American mothers are breadwinners, compared with fewer than half of White and Asian/Pacific Islander mothers. Breadwinner moms are either raising children on their own or contributing at least 40 percent of a married couple’s earnings. The majority of Black, Native American, and Hispanic breadwinner moms are single and raising a family on their own, while the majority of White and Asian/Pacific Islander breadwinner mothers are married.

As the share of breadwinner mothers increases, another IWPR analysis found that women’s wages fell 1.6 percent between 2004 and 2014, with Black, Native American, and Hispanic women’s earnings falling around three times as much as women’s earnings overall. (Read the analysis with state data for Black women and Native American women.)

5. The Evidence-Based Case for Paid Sick Days and Paid Leave Policies

>> Read the briefing paper, Paid Sick Days Benefit Employers, Workers, and the Economy

Four in 10 American workers lack access to paid sick days, with access less likely among Hispanic workers and workers in low-wage and food service jobs. A recent IWPR briefing paper compiles all available social science and policy research, which show that paid sick days are associated with benefits to employers—including reduced contagion in the workplace, improved productivity, decreased workplace injuries, and lower employee turnover—and employment benefits to workers, including greater job stability and labor force attachment.

>> Read the report, Paid Parental Leave in the United States: What the Data Tell Us about Access, Usage, and Economic and Health Benefits

Another IWPR report compiles available research and data on the access to paid parental leave and the benefits of such a policy. A growing body of research suggests that paid family leave increases labor market attachment, economic security, and the health and welfare of families and children, and has the potential to help businesses thrive, reduce spending on public benefits programs, and promote economic growth and competitiveness.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org