IWPR January Research News Roundup

IWPR January Research News Roundup

1. In Florida, Women Are Poorer Today Than 12 Years Ago

By Brenda Medina | Miami Herald | 12.28.16

“In Florida, women are poorer and have less access to healthcare and development opportunities than most states in the country, according to a recent poverty report. The number of women 18 and older in Florida living below the poverty line is 15.4 percent (compared to men, which is 12.2 percent), according to the study, ‘The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity,’ by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. In 2004, the percentage of women below the poverty line was 12.6.”

Citing The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity, by Julie Anderson, M.A. and Cynthia Hess, Ph.D, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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2. What Keeps Women Out of Career Programs — and What Will Make Them Stay

By Johnny Magdaleno | NextCity | 12.19.16

“If you’re a mother of two and working a part-time job, finding the time to train for a better-paying, more demanding career can seem near impossible. But career training programs throughout the country are beginning to understand that offering support services that help women and families, like child care and emergency cash assistance, will help them graduate more people. That’s according to a new study by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, which interviewed 168 workforce program administrators in 41 states and the District of Columbia. Most of these participants said issues like child care, financial restraints and even mental health issues contribute to keeping students from getting certificates.”

Citing: Supportive Services in Workforce Development Programs: Administrator Perspectives on Availability and Unmet Needs, by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Emma Williams-Baron, Barbara Gault, Ph.D., and Ariane Hegewisch, M.Phil., Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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3. Study Reveals Women Will Be Hurt Most by the Rise of Automation

By James Farrell | Silicon Angle | 1.4.17

“Women stand to fare far worse than men in the transition to an automated future, according to a new World Economic Forum report. The report stands in stark contrast to recent proclamations by government and industry that automation will be a net positive for most people. The White House recently issued a report on automation telling us all to remain sangfroid. Tesla Motors Inc. Chief Executive Elon Musk painted an even rosier picture of a leisurely post-automation life. Not least, those actually building the bots to replace humans have also offered a rather positive outlook.”

Citing: Gender Parity and Human Capital, by The World Economic Forum

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4. This Is Exactly How Much Money You’re Losing If You Have Young Kids

By Emily Peck | The Huffington Post | 12.28.16

“Having a child under the age of 5 is hard enough, but in the United States, parenting comes with the added bonus of near-financial ruin. If we don’t do something about this, the economic consequences for the country are not going to be pretty. Parents of young kids see their income fall by an average of 14 percent compared to those without children, according to a study released last week by liberal think-tank Demos, which looked at 2015 Census data. In two-parent households, that amounts to a loss of $14,850. For single mothers, it’s worse: $16,610.”

Citing: The Parent Trap: The Economic Insecurity of Families with Young Children, by Amy Traub, Robert Hiltonsmith, and Tamara Draut, Demos

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5. White House Report Focuses on Challenges Faced by Women and Girls of Color

By Gabrielle Levy | U.S. News and World Report | 12.16.16

“[The White House Council on Women and Girls] released its third annual report – “Advancing Equity for Women and Girls of Color” – detailing the unique challenges women and girls of color face in school and in the workforce, part of a targeted effort to address the structural disadvantages that keep them persistently behind their white and male peers. The report, and the multi-year initiative, focused on five objectives: reducing teen pregnancy; encouraging success in school; making science, technology, engineering and math – or STEM – education more inclusive; opening avenues to economic prosperity; and reducing the risk factors for vulnerable girls.”

Citing: Advancing Equity for Women and Girls of Color: 2016 Updated Report, by The White House Council on Women and Girls

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6. Abortion Is Found to Have Little Effect on Women’s Mental Health

By Pam Belluck | New York Times | 12.14.16

“It’s an idea that has long been used as an argument against abortion — that terminating a pregnancy causes women to experience emotional and psychological trauma. Some states require women seeking abortions to be counseled that they might develop mental health problems. Now a new study, considered to be the most rigorous to look at the question in the United States, undermines that claim. Researchers followed nearly 1,000 women who sought abortions nationwide for five years and found that those who had the procedure did not experience more depression, anxiety, low self-esteem or dissatisfaction with life than those who were denied it.”

Citing: Women’s Mental Health and Well-being 5 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study, by M. Antonia Biggs, PhD; Ushma D. Upadhyay, PhD, MPH; Charles E. McCulloch, PhD; et al, JAMA Psychiatry

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In addition, we’ve added some of the latest research coming out on mothers, access to child care, and the safety net.

NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

More Than a Million Millennials are Becoming Moms Each Year

By Gretchen Livingston | Pew Research Center | January 2017

All told, Millennial women (those born from 1981 to 1997) accounted for about eight-in-ten (82 percent) U.S. births in 2015. At the same time, Millennials make up 31 percent of the adult U.S. population, and just over a third (34 percent) of the U.S. workforce. While they now account for the vast majority of annual U.S. births, Millennial women are waiting longer to become parents than prior generations did. Among Millennial women ages 18 to 33 in 2014, for instance, 42 percent were moms. But when women from Generation X – those born between 1965 and 1980 – were in the same age range, 49 percent were already moms, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey data. (The rising age at first birth is hardly limited to the Millennial generation. It has been a trend since at least 1970. Many factors may contribute, including a shift away from marriage, increasing educational attainment and the movement of women into the labor force.)

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State(s) of Head Start

By W. Steven Barnett Ph.D. and Allison H. Friedman-Krauss, Ph.D | National Institute for Early Education Research | December 2016

State(s) of Head Start is the first report to describe and analyze in detail Head Start enrollment, funding, quality, and duration, state-by-state. The report focuses on the 2014-2015 program year but also provides longitudinal data beginning with the 2006-2007 program year. Despite the fact that Head Start is a federally funded, national program, the report reveals that access to Head Start programs, funding per child, teacher education, quality of teaching, and duration of services all vary widely by state. This report’s findings underscore the need for greater coordination between Head Start and state and local government agencies to build high-quality early learning programs with widespread reach and adequate funding. The authors call for an independent bipartisan national commission to study the issues raised in this report and develop an action plan to ensure every eligible child in every state has an equal opportunity to benefit from Head Start.

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A Closer Look at Latino Access to Child Care Subsidies

By Christina Walker and Stephanie Schmit | Center for Law and Social Policy | December 2016

A recent CLASP analysis found that access to child care subsidies is sharply limited for all eligible children, but even more so for particular racial and ethnic groups and in particular states.  A striking finding is that eligible Latino children have very limited access to CCDBG-funded child care assistance. While 13 percent of all eligible children (ages 0-13, regardless of race/ethnicity) and 21 percent of eligible Black children receive child care assistance through CCDBG, only 8 percent of eligible Latino children get help. Access is even lower in many states, including Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Oregon, South Carolina, and Tennessee (see Appendix).This brief looks more deeply into the data on Latino children and offers potential policy solutions to improve access to child care assistance. CLASP’s “Disparate Access” work is intended to promote understanding of racial and ethnic differences in access to child care and early education and explore and uncover the reasons for such differences. This report is a companion piece to CLASP’s original report, Disparate Access: Head Start and CCDBG Data by Race and Ethnicity.

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A New Safety Net for an Era of Unstable Earnings

By Andrew Stettner, Michael Cassidy and George Wentworth | The Century Foundation | December 2016

Economic insecurity has been a hallmark of working families’ lives in the twenty-first century. Memories of the Great Recession—when unemployment reached its highest level in generations—are still fresh in the American consciousness. Workers who are laid off experience longer durations of unemployment than in previous economic eras, and even when they find work, they struggle to get back to their prior wage. Americans from all walks of life feel they can no longer count on steady forty-hour-per-week jobs. Workers in low-wage service industries can have their schedule changed on a weekly or even daily basis. There is rising national awareness of the independent workforce of freelancers and the contingent workforce of on-call and on-demand workers, including an increasing number working in the so-called “gig economy.” While these workers may gain flexibility, it comes at the price of economic stability.

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Breadwinning Mothers Are Increasingly the U.S. Norm

By Sarah Jane Glynn | Center for American Progress | December 2016

The Center for American Progress first described the role of working mothers as breadwinners in 2009 with The Shriver Report: A Woman’s Nation Changes Everything, in a chapter titled “The New Breadwinners.”1 Authored by former CAP economist Heather Boushey, “The New Breadwinners” was among the first pieces of research to quantify the ways that women’s labor force participation has increased since the 1960s and what that means for families’ incomes. This report updates Boushey’s original analysis of breadwinning and co-breadwinning mothers and a 2014 follow-up report from CAP—“Breadwinning Mothers, Then and Now”—using the most recent data available. While this newest report revises the original analysis, it also provides new analyses looking at differences in breadwinning and co-breadwinning based on race and place. Specifically, it dives deeper into differences between black and white mothers in the frequency with which they combine paid employment with family caregiving and the different ways that they contribute to their families’ bottom lines. Most notably, the report highlights differences in the rates of breadwinning and co-breadwinning among different racial and ethnic groups. It also explores how rates of breadwinning differ across the United States, looking at differences between states and between rural and metropolitan areas.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

Research News Roundup: July 2015

Research News Roundup: July 2015

The Research News Roundup (RNR) is prepared monthly by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR). Articles contained in each edition of the RNR address research on women’s issues and topics of interest to women and their families. To receive the RNR by email, subscribe or update your subscription settings.

RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS

Black Children are Nearly Four Times as Likely as White Children to Live in Poverty, Report Says

By Mark Berman | Washington Post | 7.14.2015

“Black children were nearly four times as likely as white or Asian children to be living in poverty in 2013, according a new Pew Research Center report analyzing Census Bureau data. The poverty rate fell among Hispanic, white and Asian children in 2013, yet even as this rate declined for them, it remained the same for black children. About four in 10 black children were living in poverty in 2013, compared to about three in 10 Hispanic children and one in 10 white or Asian children. Black and Hispanic children are acutely over-represented in terms of child poverty.”

Citing: Black Child Poverty Rate Holds Steady, Even as Other Groups See Declines, by Eileen Patten and Jens Manuel Krogstad, Pew Research Center

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More Than 95% of Women Who Get an Abortion Don’t Regret Their Decision, Even Three Years Later

By Ed Cara | Medical Daily | 7.13.2015

“Fighting back against long-held stereotypes about the inherent shame and grief that supposedly comes with obtaining an abortion, a study published in PLOS-One last week has found that 95 percent of women surveyed felt their abortion was the right choice to make, even when reflecting back on the decision over three years later… ‘Women in this study overwhelmingly felt that the decision was the right one for them: at all time points over three years, 95 percent of participants reported abortion was the right decision, with the typical participant having a greater than 99 percent chance of reporting the abortion decision was right for her,’ the authors concluded. ‘Women also experienced reduced emotional intensity over time: the feelings of relief and happiness experienced shortly after the abortion tended to subside, as did negative emotions. Notably, we found no differences in emotional trajectories or decision rightness between women having earlier versus later procedures.’”

Citing: Decision Rightness and Emotional Responses to Abortion in the United States: A Longitudinal Study, by Corinne H. Rocca, Katrina Kimport , Sarah C. M. Roberts , Heather Gould, John Neuhaus, Diana G. Foster, PLOS-One

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Black Girls Matter: For Too Long, the Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline has Gone Unchecked

By Teresa C. Younger | Huffington Post | 7.10.2015

“The report tells the story of how sexual abuse–which begins for many girls in the juvenile justice system between ages five to seven–directly leads to their imprisonment. Up to 80 percent of girls in the juvenile justice system have been sexually abused. Black girls who have been sexually abused and their Native American and Latina sisters–no matter how young–are not seen as victims. As the report explains, the justice system is plagued with a bias of race, class and gender that results in these young women and girls being seen as perpetrators. Too often the initial choice to punish and incarcerate an abused girl sets in motion a vicious cycle of abuse and imprisonment that continues throughout her life. In fact, a girl with a history of sexual abuse is five times more likely to be re-arrested once released.”

Citing: The Sexual Abuse to Prison Pipeline: The Girls’ Story, by Malika Saada Saar, Rebecca Epstein, Lindsay Rosenthal, and Yasmin Vafa, Human Rights Project for Girls, Georgetown Law Center on Poverty and Inequality, and Ms. Foundation for Women

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Women Less Likely to be Shown Ads for High-Paid Jobs on Google, Study Shows

By Samuel Gibbs | The Guardian | 7.08.2015

“Female job seekers are much less likely to be shown adverts on Google for highly paid jobs than men, researchers have found. The team of researchers from Carnegie Mellon built an automated testing rig called AdFisher that pretended to be a series of male and female job seekers. Their 17,370 fake profiles only visited jobseeker sites and were shown 600,000 adverts which the team tracked and analysed. The authors of the study wrote: ‘In particular, we found that males were shown ads encouraging the seeking of coaching services for high paying jobs more than females.’ One experiment showed that Google displayed adverts for a career coaching service for ‘$200k+’ executive jobs 1,852 times to the male group and only 318 times to the female group.”

Citing: Automated Experiments on Ad Privacy Settings: A Tale of Opacity, Choice, and Discrimination, by Amit Datta, Michael Carl Tschantz, and Anupam Datta, Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies

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Colorado’s Effort Against Teenage Pregnancies Is a Startling Success

By Sabrina Tavernise | The New York Times | 7.05.2015

Citing: Reducing Unintended Teen Pregnancy in Colorado, by Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment

“Over the past six years, Colorado has conducted one of the largest experiments with long-acting birth control. If teenagers and poor women were offered free intrauterine devices and implants that prevent pregnancy for years, state officials asked, would those women choose them? They did in a big way, and the results were startling. The birthrate among teenagers across the state plunged by 40 percent from 2009 to 2013, while their rate of abortions fell by 42 percent, according to the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment. There was a similar decline in births for another group particularly vulnerable to unplanned pregnancies: unmarried women under 25 who have not finished high school.”

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS
Gender, Urbanization, and Democratic Governance

By Institute for Women’s Policy Research and the National Democratic Institute | Institute for Women’s Policy Research | June 2015

With two-thirds of the world’s population predicted to live in urban areas by the year 2050, the global landscape is changing rapidly. Urbanization brings with it numerous benefits, but the growing inequality between and within cities has complicated implications for urban residents, especially for those that have been historically marginalized. For women in particular, accessing the increased social, economic, and political opportunities ostensibly available to them in cities can be, in reality, incredibly difficult to take advantage of.

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Raising the Minimum Wage to $12 by 2020 Would Lift Wages for 35 Million American Workers

By David Cooper | Economic Policy Institute | July 2015

“Decades of infrequent and inadequate adjustment to the federal minimum wage have left today’s low-wage workers earning significantly less than their counterparts 50 years ago. Raising the federal minimum wage to $12 per hour by 2020 would lift wages for one-quarter of American workers and help restore the minimum wage’s role as a labor standard that ensures work is a means to escape poverty, according to EPI economic analyst David Cooper. In Raising the Minimum Wage to $12 by 2020 Would Lift Wages for 35 Million American Workers, Cooper analyzes the impact of the Senator Patty Murray (D-WA) and Representative Robert ‘Bobby’ Scott’s (D-VA) Raise the Wage Act of 2015, which proposes raising the minimum wage to $12 by 2020 and gradually eliminating the subminimum wage for tipped workers.”

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Raising the Future: Parenting Practices Among Immigrant Mothers

By Julia Gelatt, H. Elizabeth Peters, Heather Koball, and William Monson | Urban Institute | June 2015

To understand how children of immigrants are faring in the United States, it is important to examine contextual factors. In this paper, we analyze family influences; specifically, differences in parenting among immigrant mothers with different national origins, focusing on mothers from Mexico, other Latin American countries, China, and other Asian countries. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort, we look at the economic, work, social support, and health contexts in which immigrant families are situated, and at differences in parenting practices. We then explore whether differences in contexts mediate the parenting differences our analyses reveal.

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A Policy Agenda for Closing the Racial Wealth Gap

By Center for Global Policy Solutions | Center for Global Policy Solutions | June 2015

“The 200 members of the Experts of Color Network released ‘A Policy Agenda for Closing the Racial Wealth Gap’ today. Black and Latino families hold 6 and 7 cents respectively for every dollar of wealth held by white families. These wide-ranging policies aim to remove structural barriers preventing families of color from attaining economic stability for themselves and future generations. The policies are grouped in seven categories: employment, financial services, entrepreneurship, housing, education, tax policy, and retirement. The document also highlights the importance of targeting policies to address the needs of those most disadvantaged and, in the process, provide positive race-specific results.”

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Child Care in America: The 2015 State Fact Sheets

By Child Care Aware of America | Child Care Aware of America | June 2015

“To remain competitive in the 21st-century global economy, the United States must recognize the value of child care as an investment in early childhood education and as a support system for working families. Child Care in America: 2015 State Fact Sheets provides important data to better understand America’s working families and the circumstances they face. As such, it is a critical tool for child care advocates, policymakers and program administrators to guide decision-making about child care programs and costs.”

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org