Research News Roundup – January 2018

Retail Industry Meltdown Hits Women Hard; Men Remain Unscathed

By Laura Colby |  | 12.18.2017

As embattled U.S. retailers shed jobs over the past year, women have borne the brunt of the losses. Men, on the other hand, have made steady gains in the retail workforce. Women lost 129,000 retail positions in the last year, according to Bureau of Labor Statistics data analyzed by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. Men gained 106,000 positions. The report found that general-merchandise stores — mainly department stores — accounted for the largest share of both jobs lost and jobs gained. Women at those retailers lost 161,000 positions while men gained 87,800 from October 2016 to October 2017.

Citing: Decline in Retail Jobs Felt Entirely by Women by Jennifer Clark, Emma Williams-Baron, and Heidi Hartmann at Institute for Women’s Policy Research, December 2017

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Robots are going to turbo charge one of society’s biggest problems

By Lianna Brinded |  | 12.28.17

The greater adoption of robots in the workplace is heralded as a way to usher greater business efficiency, productivity, and better paid jobs, which in turn will boost the economy. However, the more jobs are automated, the more the gender wage gap will be exasperated, warns a think tank. […] [The report] warned that automation will widen the pay gaps for women and minorities since robots are likely to phase out lower-skilled jobs over the next few decades, and the jobs created in their place will be more highly skilled. Low-wage jobs are five times more likely to be automated than higher paid jobs, according to the report.

Citing: Managing automation: Employment, inequality and ethics in the digital age by Carys Roberts, Matthew Lawrence, and Loren King at The Progressive Policy Think Tank, December 2017

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Why Aren’t More Women and Minorities Studying Economics?

By Sharon Nunn |  | 12.01.2017

The economists guiding policies on everything from housing to health care disproportionately hail from one demographic group: white men. The pipeline that feeds the field is still proportionally lacking women and minorities, according to new research from the Federal Reserve. The imbalance is potentially harmful to the broader economy, the field of economics and students themselves.

Women made up about 30% of the nation’s economics majors, while minorities represent just 12%, according to the Fed study. Both numbers are significantly lower than the share of women and minorities who attend college. Women make up almost 58% of the student body and minorities represent about 21%.

Citing: The Unequal Distribution of Economic Education: A Report on the Race, Ethnicity, and Gender of Economics Majors at US Colleges and Universities by Amanda Bayer and David Wilcox at the Division of Research & Statistics and Monetary Affairs, Federal Reserve Board, December 2017

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“Gender gap” hurts small women-owned U.S. businesses

By Jonathan Spicer |  | 11.30.2017

A company is more likely to be denied funding and considered a higher credit risk if it is headed by a woman, according to a Federal Reserve report published on Thursday that shines some light on the so-called gender gap among small U.S. businesses. The 2016 survey showed a somewhat self-reinforcing cycle of women facing higher hurdles than men in not only securing loans but also in increasing profits, revenues and number of employees. Authors of the report by the U.S. central bank’s New York and Kansas City branches said it could help explain why the performance of majority women-owned companies has lagged in recent years, even while their numbers have grown much faster than businesses run by men. One-fifth of U.S. companies had female bosses in 2015.

Citing: 2016 Small Business Credit Survey: Report on Women-Owned Firms by the Federal Reserve Banks of New York and Kansas City, November 2017

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

Undervalued: A Brief History of Women’s Care Work and Child Care Policy in the United States

By Julie Vogtman | National Women’s Law Center | Decenber 2017

Today, more women are in the labor force than ever before, in a range of jobs far wider than their grandmothers might have imagined. Yet in the U.S., child care is largely still viewed as women’s work and—in contrast to nearly every other developed nation in the world—as a private responsibility rather than a public good. Undervalued: A Brief History of Women’s Care Work and Child Care Policy in the United States provides a brief overview of the state of child care in the United States and traces how—through the persistent denigration of the care work performed by women, especially women of color, and resulting public policy decisions—we arrived at this point. And it identifies the policy solutions that are needed to move toward a system that works for both families and child care providers.

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Financial Services Industry: Trends in Management Representation of Minorities and Women

Daniel Garcia-Diaz | U.S. Government Accountability Office | December 2017

Overall representation of minorities in first-, mid-, and senior-level management positions in the financial services industry increased from about 17 percent to 21 percent from 2007 through 2015. However, as shown in the figure below representation varied by race/ethnicity group and management level. Specifically, representation of African-Americans at various management levels decreased while representation of other minorities increased during this period. Overall representation of women was generally unchanged during this period. Representation of women among first- and mid-level managers remained around 48 percent and senior-level managers remained about 29 percent from 2007 through 2015.

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America’s Caregiving Crunch: Are Businesses Ready?

PL+US | December 2017

When most people think about the unmet need for paid leave in the United States, they think of new parents who need time to be with their infants, but just 21 percent of leaves from work are taken for new babies. Every year, more than 40 million people, or 18 percent of the U.S. population, spend an average of 24 hours a week providing unpaid care for a chronically ill, disabled, or elderly family member. The United States is the only industrialized country that does not guarantee paid family leave, which negatively impacts our health, our economy, our businesses, and our families. The lack of national paid family leave law means companies must create their own policies to meet the needs of their employees.

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Improving Job Quality for the Direct Care Workforce: A Review of State Policy Strategies

By Allison Cook| The Working Poor Families Project | December 2017

Direct care workers—including certified nursing assistants, home health aides, and personal care aides—provide most of the paid, hands-on care received by older adults and people with disabilities who require long-term care. As the demand for long-term care has increased due to the aging of the U.S. population, the direct care workforce has become one of the country’s largest occupations. This substantial workforce is essential to quality of care and life for older people and people with disabilities, yet direct care workers remain undervalued in our long-term care system. Direct care jobs are characterized by low pay, poor benefits, insufficient hours, and minimal training and advancement opportunities. In turn, these workers and their families often struggle to make ends meet.

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Paid Family and Medical Leave: Cost and Coverage Estimates of Three Choices in Massachusetts

By Randy Abelda and Alan Clayton-Matthews| Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy | December 2017

The birth of a child, a cancer diagnosis, a hip replacement, or serious illness of a parent, spouse or child. Each requires a worker to take an extended, but temporary, period of time off from work. Most workers will experience such an event at some point in their life. Yet the United States is one of the few countries in the world that does not have a national policy on paid maternity leave and remains an outlier among industrial counterparts without any guarantee of paid parental and medical leave. Currently, six states and Washington DC, however, have such paid family and medical leave (PFML) programs or have recently enacted them. Many other states have paid family and medical leave legislation under consideration, including Massachusetts. Paid family leave acknowledges the realities of today’s workforce in which many workers struggle to balance work and family, while paid medical leave reduces the economic risk of being out of work for a serious, but short-term, health condition by providing partial pay.

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IWPR Research News Roundup – December 2017

RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS

Women are better in tech than men, says a report

By Erin Carson |  | 11.17.17

A report from the Metropolitan Policy Program at the Brookings Institution measured men’s and women’s digital scores, and found that women had stronger skills than men do. The Brookings report, called “Digitalization and the American Workforce,” looked at “information about the knowledge, skills, tools and technology; education and training; work context; and work activities required” for high tech jobs, and it gave women a digital score of 48 versus 45 for men.

Citing: Digitalization and the American Workforce by Mark Muro, Jacob Whiton, and Siddharth Kulmaki, at The Brookings Institution, November 2017

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Women start-ups hampered by bias among male investors: study

By Emily Velasco |  | 11.16.2017

A new study is highlighting one possible reason women aren’t making more headway in Silicon Valley: men prefer to invest in companies run by other men. With men making up 90 percent of venture capitalists, that preference is a bottleneck that keeps women out of the ranks of tech entrepreneurs. […] Because female-led start-ups face tougher funding prospects than male-led start-ups, fewer women enter the tech entrepreneur pipeline that ultimately feeds the ranks of venture capitalists.

Citing: Are Early Stage Investors Biased Against Women? By Michael Ewens and Richard R. Townsend at California Institute of Technology and University of California, San Diego, October 2017

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What we now know about who struggles with student debt

By Danielle Douglas-Gabriel |  | 11.16.2017

Older African Americans and college students with children disproportionately bear the burden of education debt, according to a pair of reports released this week that researchers say show the need for more nuanced solutions from higher education. Americans over age 50 collectively hold $247 billion in outstanding federal education loans, an amount that has grown threefold since 2003, policy analysts at the Urban Institute found. The impact of that debt differs depending on whether borrowers took out the loan for themselves or for family members, according to a report released Thursday by the think tank.

Citing: The Complexity of Education Debt Among Older Americans, by Kristin Blagg and Victoria Lee at The Urban Institute, November 2017

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Violence Against Transgender People Is on the Rise, Advocates Say

By Maggie Astor |  | 11.9.2017

The Human Rights Campaign has documented the killings of 25 transgender people in the United States so far in 2017, compared with 23 last year and 21 in 2015. Other organizations, like Glaad and the Transgender Law Center, have slightly different tallies, but the trend holds. Transgender people have been killed this year in Chicago and in Waxahachie, Tex.; in the Ozarks of Missouri and on the sidewalks of Manhattan. They have been shot, stabbed, burned and, in at least one case, pushed into a river. On average, one to two have been killed somewhere in the United States every week.

Citing: Violence Against the Transgender Community in 2017, by The Human Rights Campaign, October 2017

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On #LatinaEqualPayDay, Advocates Are Pushing for Change

By Lyanne Alfaro |  | 11.2.2017

When it comes to median annual earnings, Latinas make 54 cents compared to a dollar earned by non-Latino white men, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR). This means Latinas would have to work 10 more months in a year to reach the same level of pay. Women make almost half of the workforce, and only earn 80 cents to every dollar a man makes. But while non-Latina white women could close that gap by 2059, it would take Latinas until 2233 to reach parity.

Citing: Women’s Median Earnings as a Percent of Men’s 1985-2016 (Full-time, Year-Round Workers) with Projections for Pay Equity, by Race/Ethnicity, by Institute for Women’s Policy Research, November 2017

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

Becoming Visible: Race, Economic Security, and Political Voice in Jackson, Mississippi

By Rachel Black and Aleta Sprague, with Aisha Nyandoro | New America | November 2017

This report attempts to reveal how policies created through racial exclusion and oppression are maintained behind a veneer of race-neutrality, and to reject reform efforts that tinker at the margins of this system. In doing so, what we are calling for is nothing less than a new approach to making social policy based on our oldest beliefs about democracy and opportunity that truly affirms the equal humanity and dignity of all people.

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Working with men to support women’s empowerment  

Women for Women International | November 2017

Women’s equality is everyone’s business. All members of society suffer from patriarchal attitudes and have a role to play in promoting gender equality – these are not just “women’s issues.” The emerging literature suggests that there are three main reasons for engaging with men for women’s equality: Men hold important positions of power and influence over societies. Engaging with them as ‘gatekeepers’ can promote more efficient normative change via their influence. Men can become allies who understand the benefits of promoting gender equality and work in partnership with women. Men can also be co-beneficiaries, as patriarchal attitudes reinforce stringent masculine norms that dictate how men should behave and limit the roles a man can play in his family and community.

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Persistent Gaps: State Child Care Assistance Policies 2017

By Karen Schulman and Helen Blank | National Women’s Law Center |November 2017

The average annual cost for full-time care ranges from nearly $3,000 to over $17,000, depending on the age of the child, the type of care, and where the family costs can strain families’ budgets, force parents to use lower-cost care even if they would prefer other options for their children, or prevent parents from working because they cannot a ord care. Child care assistance can enable families to overcome these challenges by helping families pay for child care.

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Trends in College Pricing 2017

By Jaclyn Bergeron and Edward Lu | College Board | October 2017

Both the published tuition and fee prices of colleges and universities and the net prices students pay after subtracting grant aid and tax credits and deductions continued to rise between 2016-17 and 2017-18, even after adjusting for inflation. Average net prices in 2017-18 remain lower at public two-year and private nonprofit four-year institutions than they were in 2007-08 (in 2017 dollars). But each year since 2011-12, net prices have risen in these sectors, as well as at public four-year institutions, as the growth in grant aid slowed relative to the growth in tuition and fees.

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IWPR Research News Roundup – July 2017

RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS

Women View Online Harassment Differently Than Men

By Samantha Leffler |  | 7.20.2017

The author of a new Pew Research Center study on online harassment, Maeve Duggan, said one difficulty she encountered was the subjective nature of online harassment, which people define and react to very differently. “When it comes to online harassment, there’s no one-size-fits-all option,” she explained. Not surprisingly, the nature of the harassment varied based on gender. Though men are somewhat more likely than women to be harassed online (44 percent vs. 37 percent) women — particularly younger women — are more frequently the targets of sexual harassment online.”

Citing: Online Harassment 2017, by Maeve Duggan, Pew Research Center, July 2017

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Women of Color Don’t Feel Safe in Science Jobs

By Meredith Clark | | 7.10.2017

According to a study published today in the Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets, of the astronomers and planetary scientists surveyed, 40% of the women of color reported feeling unsafe in the workplace because of their gender or sex, and 28% reported it was due to their race. The study’s authors conducted an Internet survey of 474 women.

Citing: Double Jeopardy in Astronomy and Planetary Science: Women of Color Face Greater Risks of Gendered and Racial Harassment, by Kathryn Clancy, Katharine Lee, Erica Rodgers, and Christina Richey, Journal of Geophysical Research, July 2017

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How Party and Place Shape Americans’ Views on Discrimination

By Gene Demby | | 7.2.2017

Younger white people are much more likely than older white people to say that black people face a lot of discrimination. Most Republicans reject the idea that black people do. Black people are the racial group least likely to support same-sex marriage but the group most opposed to laws that would allow businesses to refuse service to LGBTQ+ people. These are just some of the findings in a massive new study on American attitudes about how Americans perceive discrimination, from the Public Religion Research Institute, a nonpartisan group that studies attitudes about culture and public policy.

Citing: Who Sees Discrimination? Attitudes on Sexual Orientation, Gender Identity, Race, and Immigration Status, by Daniel Cox, Rachel Lienesch, and Robert P. Jones , Public Religion Research Institute, June 2017

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Paid Leave for Parents: What’s the right amount of time?

By Kelly Wallace | | 6.29.2017

After conducting a deep dive project, where Schulte and her New America colleagues reviewed numerous studies and talked to a range of experts, they have a recommendation for the optimal duration of paid leave according to available science: Based on infant health, maternal health, gender equality and female labor force participation, they recommend six months to a year of paid family leave.

Citing: Paid Family Leave: How Much Time Is Enough?, by Brigid SchulteAlieza DuranaBrian Stout, and Jonathan MoyerNew America Foundation, June 2017

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Black Girls Are Viewed as Less Innocent and More Adultlike Than White Girls: Study

By Monique Judge | 6.28.2017

The study found that survey participants believe that black girls need less nurturing, need less protection, need to be supported and comforted less, are more independent, know more about adult topics and know more about sex. These results have far-reaching implications and can be a contributing factor to the disproportionate rates of punitive treatment in the education and juvenile-justice systems for black girls.

Citing: Girlhood Interrupted: The Erasure of Black Girls’ Childhood, by Rebecca EpsteinJamilia JBlake, and Thalia GonzálezCenter on Poverty and Inequality, June 2017

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

The Gender Wage Gap and Work-Family Supports: Women’s Choices or Policy Choices?

By Ariane Hegewisch and Emma Williams-Baron | Saint Louis University Public Law Review | July 2017

Progress towards closing the gender wage gap has slowed markedly since the early 2000s, at approximately the same time that increases in the labor force participation of mothers also stalled. […] States with better work-family provisions, such as paid family leave and publicly provided prekindergarten classes, are likely to have a lower gender wage gap than states with few supports for working families. […] Rather than focusing on women’s choices as a causation of the gender wage gap, the issue of choice concerns public policies. Without a significantly expanded work-family infrastructure it is unlikely that the gender wage gap will close.

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A Paired-Testing Pilot Study of Housing Discrimination against Same-Sex Couples and Transgender Individuals

By Diane K. Levy, Douglas A. Wissoker, Claudia Aranda, Brent Howell, Rob Pitingolo, Sarale H. Sewell, and Robert Santos | Urban Institute | June 2017

Much of what we know about housing discrimination against the LGBTQ+ community comes from surveys, but these personal experiences may only represent the most blatant forms of discrimination. To more accurately document discrimination against same-sex couples and transgender home seekers, the Urban Institute conducted studies in Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles, and Washington, DC metro areas using paired testing, a research tool that can capture discrimination in action. Their findings indicate that in the early stages of the rental search process, housing providers discriminate against gay men and transgender people on some treatment measures but treat lesbians and heterosexual women comparably.

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Meet the Out-of-Work

By Martha Ross and Natalie Holmes | The Brookings Institution | June 2017

Even in the midst of a prolonged economic expansion with a low national unemployment rate, not everyone who wants work can find it. Both job availability and demographics vary markedly around the country, yielding diverse local populations wanting and/or needing work. This analysis aims to deepen understanding of out-of-work Americans, and support local officials in their efforts to help these individuals find jobs. Brookings provides a unique perspective on adults ages 25-64 who are out of work across the United States, using cluster analysis to segment the out-of-work population into distinct groups based on factors such as educational attainment, age, work history, disability, English language proficiency, and family status. Detailed information on these groups is presented, accompanied by information on appropriate and effective programs in order to help local officials, funders, and other stakeholders develop, strengthen, or diversify strategies to connect their residents to employment.

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Access to Reproductive Health Care for U.S.-Based Refugees

By Jamila Taylor and Anusha Ravi | Center for American Progress | June 2017

At the intersection of reproductive health care access and refugee resettlement in the United States exists a community that is uniquely affected by both limitations. Upon entering the country, refugees can face barriers to accessing health care in general, including limited access to employer-sponsored health insurance coverage and limited resources or language capability to acquire quality health care services. Additional barriers to accessing reproductive health care in particular—social stigma, restrictive state and local legislation, as well as other hurdles—are compounded by refugees’ limited access to health care in general. While refugees often enter the United States as low-income, there has been significant research showing that refugees integrate well over time by entering the labor force, moving up the occupational ladder, and starting businesses after resettlement. Combined with the proven positive economic indicators for women and families that have increased access to reproductive health care, it is crucial that the refugee community have access to these comprehensive, high-quality services to economically thrive in America.

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Coupling Child Care with Pathways to Nontraditional, Higher Paying Work: Bridging Mississippi’s Skills and Wage Gap

By Matt Williams | Mississippi Low-Income Child Care Initiative | June 2017

Mississippi has a “Middle Skills Gap,” or a labor force scenario in which available jobs that require some postsecondary education or technical training outnumber workers who are qualified to fill them. This particularly impacts single moms with dependent children under the age of 18, who tend to be stuck in low-wage jobs and don’t have the training or education to get into work that pays income above poverty level. This policy brief highlights the need to invest in pathways to higher paying work and presents a solution to Mississippi’s “Middle Skills Gap” that promises to place mothers with child care needs onto pathways toward higher-paying jobs by coupling nontraditional workforce training with critical supports.

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Research News Roundup – May 2017

IWPR.org

Research Making the News

No need to punish poor or raise taxes to get people off welfare

By Chris Tomlinson|  | 5.23.17

“The adult poverty rate in Texas could be slashed from 10 percent to 4.9 percent if women were paid the same as men, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. The poverty rate among single Texas mothers would drop from 31.4 percent to 19.5 percent. ‘Persistent earnings inequality for working women translates into lower lifetime pay for women, less income for families and higher rates of poverty across the United States,’ researcher Jessica Milli concluded. ‘If women in the United States received equal pay with comparable men … the U.S. economy would have added $512.6 billion in wage and salary income.'”

Citing: The Economic Impact of Equal Pay by State by Jessica Milli, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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New Study: Women Don’t Want to Get Married Just Because Men Make More Money

Amanda Marcotte | | 5.17.17

“…Women in larger numbers may have begun choosing single motherhood out of perceived economic necessity, believing that their male partners weren’t steady enough to marry. But although the idea of single motherhood has become more normalized, women haven’t necessarily been more eager to marry, even if men are starting to make better money.”

Citing: Male Earnings, Marriageable Men, and Nonmarital Fertility: Evidence from the Fracking Boom by Melissa S. Kearney and Riley Wilson, National Bureau of Economic Research

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The Gender Pay Gap Is Largely Because of Motherhood

By Claire Cain Miller | | 5.13.17

“When men and women finish school and start working, they’re paid pretty much equally. But a gender pay gap soon appears, and it grows significantly over the next two decades. So what changes? The answer can be found by looking at when the pay gap widens most sharply. It’s the late 20s to mid-30s, according to two new studies — in other words, when many women have children. Unmarried women without children continue to earn closer to what men do.”

Citing: The Dynamics of Gender Earnings Differentials: Evidence from Establishment Data by Erling Barth, Sari Pekkala Kerr, and Claudia Olivetti, National Bureau of Economic Research

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Black Girls Are Twice as Likely to Be Suspended, In Every State

By Lauren Camera | | 5.9.17

“Black girls are more than twice as likely to be suspended from school as white girls – in every state – and it’s not because of more frequent or serious misbehavior. That’s one of the major findings included in a new report from the National Women’s Law Center, which examined a slate of issues that disproportionately impact girls of color. Its researchers placed the bulk of the blame on racist and sexist stereotypes that educators and school officials sometimes harbor about black girls, as well as a web of social circumstances, including their overrepresentation in schools with limited resources that hampers their access to experienced teachers and counselors.”

Citing: Stopping School Pushout for Girls of Color, by Adaku Onyeka-Crawford, Kayla Patrick, and Neena Chaudhry, National Women’s Law Center

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New Research Reports

Flouting the Facts: State Abortion Restrictions Flying in the Face of Science

By Rachel Benson Gold and Elizabeth Nash | Guttmacher Institute | May 2017

Most states require abortion facilities and other health care facilities to meet standards designed to ensure patient safety. However, some states have imposed specific standards for abortion providers that do little or nothing to improve safety, but significantly limit access to abortion. Those standards include measures that impose excessive physical plant requirements or require providers to have admitting privileges at local hospitals; other restrictions ban the use of telemedicine for medication abortion and limit the provision of abortion to licensed physicians.

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Intermarriage in the U.S. 50 Years after Loving v. Virginia

By Gretchen Livingston and Anna Brown | Pew Research Center | May 2017

In 2015, 17 percent of all U.S. newlyweds had a spouse of a different race or ethnicity, marking more than a fivefold increase since 1967, when 3% of newlyweds were intermarried, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. In that year, the U.S. Supreme Court in the Loving v. Virginia case ruled that marriage across racial lines was legal throughout the country. Until this ruling, interracial marriages were forbidden in many states. More broadly, one-in-ten married people in 2015 – not just those who recently married – had a spouse of a different race or ethnicity. This translates into 11 million people who were intermarried.

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Parental Work Hours and Childhood Obesity: Evidence Using Instrumental Variables Related to Sibling School Eligibility

By Charles Courtemanche, Rusty Tchernis, and Xilin Zhou | Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group, University of Chicago | May 2017

This study exploits plausibly exogenous variation from the youngest sibling’s school eligibility to estimate the effects of parental work on the weight outcomes of older children. Data come from the 1979 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth linked to the Child and Young Adult Supplement. The researchers first show that mothers’ work hours increase gradually as the age of the youngest child rises, whereas mothers’ spouses’ work hours exhibit a discontinuous jump at kindergarten eligibility. Leveraging these insights, they develop an instrumental variables model that shows that parents’ work hours lead to larger increases in children’s BMI z-scores and probabilities of being overweight and obese than those identified in previous studies. They find no evidence that the impacts of maternal and paternal work are different. Subsample analyses find that the effects are concentrated among advantaged households, as measured by an index involving education, race, and mother’s marital status.

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The Gender Gap in Financial Outcomes: The Impact of Medical Payments

By Diana Farrell and Fiona Greig | JP Morgan Chase & Co. Institute | May 2017

The financial resilience of families is a critical factor in the overall health of the US economy. Americans across the income spectrum experience high levels of income and spending volatility, and health emergencies are among the most common economic hardships. One in six families makes an extraordinary medical payment in any given year. Families’ financial outcomes worsen as a result of the extraordinary medical payment and do not fully recover even a year after. This is especially true for women. The gender gap in financial outcomes widens after an extraordinary medical payment.

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Women and Giving: The Impact of Generation and Gender on Philanthropy

By Fidelity Charitable | May 2017

Women today play a central role in philanthropy, leading charitable giving within their families, using their time and skills to advance causes within their communities, and embodying the purpose and heart that underpin philanthropic goals. Women’s influence in and approach to giving has evolved over the last 40 years, reflecting the societal changes that have altered gender roles. While older women are entering retirement after decades of taking on expanding roles for women, including a greater say in household giving  decisions, their daughters—the beneficiaries of greater opportunity—are using those expanded roles to help  lead philanthropy in new directions. This report from Fidelity Charitable highlights this evolution in giving, spotlighting the differences between generations of women who give and further examining the similarities among all women, and how their philanthropic journeys are distinctive from men’s.

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The Haves and Have Nots of Paid Family Leave: Unequal Policies from the Nation’s Largest Employers

By PL+US: Paid Leave for the United States | May 2017

In the United States today, paid family leave is an elite benefit: 94 percent of low-income working people have no access to paid family leave. Millions of Americans don’t get even a single day of paid time for caregiving. One in four new moms in the U.S. is back at work just ten days after childbirth. While public discourse often focuses on income inequality, there is another critical way families experience inequality: the inability to be with their babies and families for the most important moments of their lives.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

March IWPR Research News Roundup

March IWPR Research News Roundup

RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS


Here’s How Long It Will Take for Each State to Give Women Equal Pay

By Annalyn Kurtz| | 3.22.17

“Florida may be the first state to close the gender wage gap. Women in Wyoming, however, may have to wait until year 2153 until they make as much as their male counterparts. That’s according to projections released by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research on Wednesday. Julie Anderson, a senior research associate with IWPR, used Census data to measure how wages for full-time, year-round working men and women have changed in each state since 1959. Then she used these historical trends to predict how much longer it will take to close the pay gap between the sexes. The answer, to say the least, is depressing.”

Citing: Projected Year the Wage Gap Will Close by State by Julie Anderson, Jessica Milli, and Melanie Kruvelis, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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The Pay Gap Could Vanish For All Women – Sometime in the 23rd Century

By Jon Swartz and Charisse Jones | | 3.13.17

“Despite strides in the 1980s and 1990s, the pay gap between the sexes hasn’t budged in more than a decade. That’s even with growing research and outcry that’s prompted some companies to review — and vow to fix — broad discrepancies in their own workforces. The numbers are glaring: Women make up half the U.S. college-educated workforce but those with full-time jobs were on average paid 80 cents for every dollar earned by men in nearly every occupation for which there was sufficient earnings data in 2015, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. The gap is especially pronounced when comparing median weekly earnings and far deeper for women of color.”

Citing: The Gender Wage Gap 2016: Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity by Ariane Hegewisch and Emma Williams-Baron, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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New Research Identifies a ‘Sea of Despair’ Among White, Working-Class Americans

By Joel Achenbach and Dan Keating| | 3.23.17

“Sickness and early death in the white working class could be rooted in poor job prospects for less-educated young people as they first enter the labor market, a situation that compounds over time through family dysfunction, social isolation, addiction, obesity and other pathologies, according to a study published Thursday by two prominent economists.”

Citing: Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century by Anne Case and Angus Deaton, Princeton University

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Women in Cybersecurity Face an Uphill Battle. Mentorship Could Help.

By Jonathan Vanian |  | 3.14.17

“Overall, the analysis paints a grim picture of how women are represented in the cybersecurity field, as females account for just 11 percent of all cybersecurity professionals, earn less than their male counterparts across the board, and generally feel under-appreciated by their employers. The disparity remains at the executive level too, the research shows, with men being nine times more likely to be in a managerial position, and four times more likely to be in executive management.”

Citing: The 2017 Global Information Security Workforce Study: Women in Cybersecurity, by International Information System Security Certification Consortium, The Center for Cyber Safety and Education, and the Executive Women’s Forum

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Women in Finance are Punished Much More than Men for Violating the Rules

By Oliver Staley |  | 3.14.17

“By now, it’s well established that women are paid less than men, and receive fewer opportunities for advancement. Now, a study shows there’s also a gender gap when it comes to discipline. Male financial advisors are three times more likely to be involved in misconduct than women, but women are 50% more likely to lose their jobs as a result, according to a new paper by business professors at Stanford and the universities of Chicago and Minnesota. Women, who are less likely to be repeat offenders, also have a harder time finding new jobs after they’re fired.”

Citing: When Harry Fired Sally: The Double Standard in Punishing Misconduct, by Mark Egan, University of Minnesota; Gregor Matvos, University of Chicago; Amit Seru, Stanford University

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Trump’s Child Care Plan Is Gift to the Rich, Report Says

By Heather Long |  | 2.28.17

“The heart of Trump’s [child care] plan is to significantly expand the tax deduction that families can take for child care expenses for kids under 13. Anyone making less than $250,000 ($500,000 if married) could deduct the average cost of child care in their state. (The average would be based on the age of their child, since it usually costs more to care for infants and toddlers). That sounds great, but families have to pay income taxes to Uncle Sam in order to take advantage of the deduction. Many working class families pay nothing in federal income taxes because they earn too little in income to owe anything.”

Citing: Who Benefits from President Trump’s Child Care Proposals?, Lily L. Batchelder, Elaine Maag, Chye-Ching Huang, and Emily Horton, Tax Policy Center

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS


Does Quebec’s Subsidized Child Care Policy Give Boys and Girls an Equal Start?

By Michael J. Kottelenberg and Steven F. Lehrer | NBER | March 2017

Although an increasing body of research promotes the development of universal early education and care programs, little is known about the extent to which these programs affect gender gaps in academic achievement and other developmental outcomes. Analyzing the introduction of universal highly-subsidized child care in Quebec, we first demonstrate that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the average effect of access to universal child care on child outcomes. However, we find substantial heterogeneity in policy impacts on the variance of developmental and behavioral scores across genders. Additionally, our analysis reveals significant evidence of differential parenting practices by gender in response to the introduction of the policy. The analysis is suggestive that the availability of subsidized child care changed home environments disproportionately, and may be responsible for the growing gender gaps in behavioral outcomes observed after child care is subsidized.

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The State of American Wages 2016

By Elise Gould | Economic Policy Institute | March 2017

Rising wage inequality has been a defining feature of the American economy for nearly four decades. In 2016, with an improving economy, most workers at all income and educational levels finally began to see an increase in wages. But large gaps in equality by gender, race, and wage level remain, and some of these gaps are increasing.

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Hungry and Homeless in College: Results from a National Study of Basic Needs Insecurity in Higher Education

By Sara Goldrick-Rab, Jed Richardson, and Anthony Hernandez | Wisconsin HOPE Lab | March 2017

Food and housing insecurity among the nation’s community college students threatens their health and wellbeing, along with their academic achievements. Addressing these basic needs is critical to ensuring that more students not only start college, but also have the opportunity to complete degrees. This report presents findings from the largest survey ever conducted of basic needs insecurity among college students. In 2015, the Wisconsin HOPE Lab published the research report Hungry to Learn, a study based on a survey of approximately 4,000 students at ten community colleges in seven states. This study includes more than 33,000 students at 70 community colleges in 24 states. While this is not a nationally representative sample of students or colleges, it is far greater in size and diversity than prior samples, and provides information to shed new light on critical issues warranting further research.

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From Day One: An Agenda for Advancing Women Leaders in Africa

By Joyce Banda | Wilson Center | March 2017

All across the globe, leadership programs designed and led by civil society, governments, and the international community seek to imbue leadership skills in women and girls. The potential impact of these programs, however, is undermined by the extremely gendered political, cultural and social practices of society. Aspiring and existing women leaders face their own unique challenges, such as lacking appropriate training and financing, violence, and issues including media coverage and fake news. More than 60% of Africa’s population lives in rural areas where these challenges, especially to young girls, are the most pronounced. In order to ensure women in Africa have the same opportunities as men to become leaders, African leaders and the international community must address the unique challenges facing women and girls to become the leaders they were born to be.

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Investing in Workforce Program Innovation: A Formative Evaluation of Five Workforce Organizations’ Experiences during the Human Capital Innovation Fund Initiative

By Ranita Jain, Amanda Newman, and Marcela Montes | Aspen Institute | March 2017

In local labor markets across the country, workforce organizations are striving to help unemployed and under-employed individuals prepare for, connect to, and advance in employment. To support this work, the Capital One Foundation established its Human Capital Innovation Fund (HCIF), which between 2012 and 2016 invested in building the capacity of five workforce organizations to pursue new strategies. These organizations are DC Central Kitchen in Washington, DC, the Greater New Orleans Foundation in New Orleans, LA, and Brooklyn Workforce Innovations, The Door, and JobsFirstNYC in New York, NY. In this report, the researchers describe the five organizations’ experiences planning, implementing, and adapting new strategies. It offers insights into the complex work of developing and maintaining relationships that cross institutions.

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Towards a Better Future for Women and Work: Voices of Women and Men

By Douglas J. Besharov, Richard V. Burkhauser, Bouglas M. Call, et al. | Gallup and the International Labour Organization| February 2017

Gallup and the International Labour Organization surveyed the world’s women and men to better understand their perceptions about women and work. Universally, the study found that the top challenge that men and women identify for working women is maintaining the balance between work and family. But this is not the only challenge these women face — and struggles aren’t the same everywhere. Women in developed economies, for example, also frequently mention unequal pay, while women in developing economies are more likely to cite unfair treatment and abuse in the workplace.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

February Research News Roundup

February Research News Roundup

RESEARCH IN THE NEWS

Boston Comes Together to Help Immigrants Find Jobs

By Johnny Magdaleno|  | 2.6.17

“JVS Boston is just one of several programs, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR), that braid federal and local resources into an effective salve for people in need. From Cincinnati to Seattle, these efforts provide “key unmet needs” to job seekers like Feona, according to IWPR researchers.”

Citing: Programs to Support Job Training Success: Innovations to Address Unmet Needs, by Julie Anderson, M.A., Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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A Surprising Group is Taking Over College Campuses

By Jillian Berman| | 1.30.17

“The number of college students with kids of their own grew by more than 1 million, or 30%, between 2004 and 2012, according to a report released Monday by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, a Washington, D.C.-based think tank focused on women’s economic issues. Parents are flocking to college campuses as a college degree becomes increasingly necessary to secure a good job in today’s labor market. But at the same time that this group of student parents is growing, the resources colleges provide to them are shrinking. Between 2005 and 2015, the number of campuses with child care declined in 36 states.”

Citing: College Students with Children: National and Regional Profiles, by Elizabeth Noll, Ph.D., Lindsey Reichlin, M.A., and Barbara Gault, Ph.D., Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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The Number of US Women Taking Maternity Leave Isn’t Increasing, and Trump Won’t Fix That

By Sarah Frostenson | | 1.26.17

“…A Department of Labor and IWPR research brief found that if a national family leave plan was implemented, the number of workers opting to take paid family and medical leave would only increase by 6 to 11 percent annually, depending on the model implemented.[IWPR President Heidi] Hartmann said the brief didn’t project a larger percentage of workers taking paid family and medical leave because workers are more likely to store up paid leave instead of taking it. But she maintains that a federally mandated program remains the best way to ensure paid leave for low-income women and women working in businesses that cannot afford to provide paid leave on their own.”

Citing Estimating Usage and Costs of Alternative Policies to Provide Sick Days in the United States, by IMPAQ International and the Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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Why Young Girls Don’t Think They Are Smart Enough

By Andrei Cimpian and Sarah-Jane Leslie| | 1.26.16

“By the age of 6, young girls are less likely than boys to view their own gender as brilliant. In our research, published today in the journal Science, we’ve found that girls as young as 6 start to believe that specific activities are “not for them” simply because they think they’re not smart enough. Our research suggests that American children are picking up on cultural stereotypes about brilliance at an early age. Unfortunately, these stereotypes suggest that girls aren’t as smart as boys.”

Citing: Gender Stereotypes About Intellectual Ability Emerge Early and Influence Children’s Interests, by Lin Bian, Sarah-Jane Leslie, and Andrei Cimpian

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U.S. Abortion Rate Falls to Lowest Level Since Roe v. Wade

By Sarah McCammon| | 1.17.17

“The abortion rate in the United States fell to its lowest level since the historic Roe v. Wade Supreme Court decision legalized abortion nationwide, a new report finds. The report by the Guttmacher Institute, a research group that supports legalized abortion, puts the rate at 14.6 abortions per 1,000 women of childbearing age (ages 15-44) in 2014. That’s the lowest recorded rate since the Roe decision in 1973. The abortion rate has been declining for decades — down from a peak of 29.3 in 1980 and 1981.”

Citing: Abortion Incidence and Service Availability in the United States, 2014, by Rachel K. Jones and Jenna Jerman, Guttmacher Institute

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Even in Liberal Boston, There’s a Gender Wage Gap

By Katie Johnston| | 1.5.17

“Working women in Greater Boston make 77 cents on the dollar compared to men — a gender wage gap that echoes the national average — according to a report released Thursday by the Boston Women’s Workforce Council. The report, which collected anonymous wage data from 112,600 workers at 69 companies, is the first in the nation to analyze the gender pay gap using employer data, according to the study authors. Previously, wage gaps have been calculated using employee-reported salaries, which are considered less accurate.”

Citing: Boston Women’s Workforce Council Report 2016, by Boston Women’s Workforce Council

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NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

Report to the New Leadership and the American People on Social Insurance and Inequality

By Benjamin W. Veghte, Elliot Schreur, Alexandra L. Bradley, et al. | National Academy of Social Insurance | January 2017

The Academy engaged the expertise of over 80 of its Members and partners in government, law, advocacy, and academia to develop informed analyses of the current challenges facing social insurance, as well opportunities for improvements. This Report provides accurate, non-biased, non-partisan analyses of social insurance from a variety of perspectives to inform the new leadership and the American people about the importance of this infrastructure, the crucial issues at stake in social insurance policy, and the possibility – and, in many cases, necessity – for reforms.

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Maternity and Family Leave Policy

By Maya Rossin-Slater | National Bureau of Economic Research| January 2017

Maternity and family leave policies enable mothers to take time off work to prepare for and recover from childbirth and to care for their new children. While there is substantial variation in the details of these policies around the world, the existing research yields the following general conclusions. First, despite important barriers to the take-up of leave, both the implementation of new programs and extensions of existing ones increase leave-taking rates among new parents. Second, leave entitlements less than one year in length can improve job continuity for women and increase their employment rates several years after childbirth; longer leaves can negatively influence women’s earnings, employment, and career advancement. Third, extensions in existing paid leave policies have no impact on measures of child well-being, but the introduction of short paid and unpaid leave programs can improve children’s short- and long-term outcomes. Fourth, while more research is needed, the current evidence shows minimal impacts of existing U.S. state-level programs on employer-level outcomes such as employee productivity, morale, profitability, turnover rates, or the total wage bill.

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Access to Contraception in 2016 and What It Means to Women

By Emily M. Johnston, Brigette Courtot, and Genevieve M. Kenney | Urban Institute | January 2017

Understanding women’s access to contraception in 2016 is particularly important given the uncertainty of policies affecting access to reproductive health services in the future. This brief provides estimates of self-reported access to contraception among women at risk of unintended pregnancy and perceptions of the role of birth control in women’s lives. Most women are using contraception, the full cost of which is usually covered by health insurance or another program. Yet, some women report barriers to contraception access, many of which are related to cost. The majority of women agree that birth control has a positive effect on women’s lives.

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Bridging the Divide: How Business Ownership Can Help Close the Racial Wealth Gap

By Joyce Klein | The Aspen Institute | January 2017

Latinos and African Americans holder relatively low levels of business assets, contributing to their lower levels of wealth overall. Yet there are trends in the right direction: rates of business creation among these entrepreneurs are increasing, and now exceed those of whites. Particularly among African Americans, higher levels of college attainment combined with expanded contracting opportunities are enabling movement into more lucrative markets and sectors…The white paper outlines short- and long-term recommendations to address the racial wealth gap through business ownership strategies. In the short-term, continuing and expanding efforts to increase access to capital, skills, networks, and markets will be needed to realize the promise that business ownership holds for addressing the racial wealth gap. In the long-term, universal policies to narrow the racial wealth gap — such as those aimed at raising the quality of education, building savings, and increasing financial inclusion — will be critical.

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Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements

By Alexandre Mas and Amanda Pallais | Washington Center for Equitable Growth | January 2017

We use a field experiment to study how workers value alternative work arrangements. During the application process to staff a national call center, we randomly offered applicants choices between traditional M-F 9 am – 5 pm office positions and alternatives. These alternatives include flexible scheduling, working from home, and positions that give the employer discretion over scheduling. We randomly varied the wage difference between the traditional option and the alternative, allowing us to estimate the entire distribution of willingness to pay (WTP) for these alternatives. We validate our results using a nationally-representative survey. The great majority of workers are not willing to pay for flexible scheduling relative to a traditional schedule: either the ability to choose the days and times of work or the number of hours they work. However, the average worker is willing to give up 20% of wages to avoid a schedule set by an employer on a week’s notice. This largely represents workers’ aversion to evening and weekend work, not scheduling unpredictability. Traditional M-F 9 am – 5 pm schedules are preferred by most jobseekers. Despite the fact that the average worker isn’t willing to pay for scheduling flexibility, a tail of workers with high WTP allows for sizable compensating differentials. Of the worker- friendly options we test, workers are willing to pay the most (8% of wages) for the option of working from home. Women, particularly those with young children, have higher WTP for work from home and to avoid employer scheduling discretion. They are slightly more likely to be in jobs with these amenities, but the differences are not large enough to explain any wage gaps.

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Preparing for the Elder Boom: A Framework for State Solutions

By Josephine Kalipeni| Caring Across Generations | January 2017

With Millennials becoming parents and Baby Boomers getting older, the need for care across all generations of our families is growing. Many people can no longer rely on just family to provide the care they need. One of the most important steps we can take – and must take – in creating a family-centered caregiving system built for the 21st century is to address, head-on, the question of how we better provide long-term services and supports (LTSS) for our aging population and people with disabilities. Supporting care at any age and every stage of life will mean that we must invest now in eldercare, childcare, and paid leave for all. This paper reflects Caring Across Generations’ recommendations for the first of these critical components of a new, inclusive, interdependent vision for Universal Family Care.

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Aging in the 21st Century: Challenges and Opportunities for Americans

By Amanda Sonnega | Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan | January 2017

Our nation’s leading resource for data on aging in America—the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a panel study of people over age 50 in the United States—is now in its 25th year. As the Baby Boom generation retires at the astounding rate of 10,000 people per day, this public asset is more important than ever. By 2030, when the last of the Boomers turns 65, the population aged 65 and older will have increased to 20 percent from 15 percent in 2015. This dramatic change in our population means that there will be more retirees drawing benefits and fewer workers to help pay for programs like Social Security and Medicare. The HRS was created to help address these challenges by providing information about the lives of retired people and people approaching retirement ages.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

IWPR January Research News Roundup

IWPR January Research News Roundup

1. In Florida, Women Are Poorer Today Than 12 Years Ago

By Brenda Medina | Miami Herald | 12.28.16

“In Florida, women are poorer and have less access to healthcare and development opportunities than most states in the country, according to a recent poverty report. The number of women 18 and older in Florida living below the poverty line is 15.4 percent (compared to men, which is 12.2 percent), according to the study, ‘The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity,’ by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. In 2004, the percentage of women below the poverty line was 12.6.”

Citing The Status of Women in Florida by County: Poverty & Opportunity, by Julie Anderson, M.A. and Cynthia Hess, Ph.D, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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2. What Keeps Women Out of Career Programs — and What Will Make Them Stay

By Johnny Magdaleno | NextCity | 12.19.16

“If you’re a mother of two and working a part-time job, finding the time to train for a better-paying, more demanding career can seem near impossible. But career training programs throughout the country are beginning to understand that offering support services that help women and families, like child care and emergency cash assistance, will help them graduate more people. That’s according to a new study by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research, which interviewed 168 workforce program administrators in 41 states and the District of Columbia. Most of these participants said issues like child care, financial restraints and even mental health issues contribute to keeping students from getting certificates.”

Citing: Supportive Services in Workforce Development Programs: Administrator Perspectives on Availability and Unmet Needs, by Cynthia Hess, Ph.D., Emma Williams-Baron, Barbara Gault, Ph.D., and Ariane Hegewisch, M.Phil., Institute for Women’s Policy Research

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3. Study Reveals Women Will Be Hurt Most by the Rise of Automation

By James Farrell | Silicon Angle | 1.4.17

“Women stand to fare far worse than men in the transition to an automated future, according to a new World Economic Forum report. The report stands in stark contrast to recent proclamations by government and industry that automation will be a net positive for most people. The White House recently issued a report on automation telling us all to remain sangfroid. Tesla Motors Inc. Chief Executive Elon Musk painted an even rosier picture of a leisurely post-automation life. Not least, those actually building the bots to replace humans have also offered a rather positive outlook.”

Citing: Gender Parity and Human Capital, by The World Economic Forum

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4. This Is Exactly How Much Money You’re Losing If You Have Young Kids

By Emily Peck | The Huffington Post | 12.28.16

“Having a child under the age of 5 is hard enough, but in the United States, parenting comes with the added bonus of near-financial ruin. If we don’t do something about this, the economic consequences for the country are not going to be pretty. Parents of young kids see their income fall by an average of 14 percent compared to those without children, according to a study released last week by liberal think-tank Demos, which looked at 2015 Census data. In two-parent households, that amounts to a loss of $14,850. For single mothers, it’s worse: $16,610.”

Citing: The Parent Trap: The Economic Insecurity of Families with Young Children, by Amy Traub, Robert Hiltonsmith, and Tamara Draut, Demos

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5. White House Report Focuses on Challenges Faced by Women and Girls of Color

By Gabrielle Levy | U.S. News and World Report | 12.16.16

“[The White House Council on Women and Girls] released its third annual report – “Advancing Equity for Women and Girls of Color” – detailing the unique challenges women and girls of color face in school and in the workforce, part of a targeted effort to address the structural disadvantages that keep them persistently behind their white and male peers. The report, and the multi-year initiative, focused on five objectives: reducing teen pregnancy; encouraging success in school; making science, technology, engineering and math – or STEM – education more inclusive; opening avenues to economic prosperity; and reducing the risk factors for vulnerable girls.”

Citing: Advancing Equity for Women and Girls of Color: 2016 Updated Report, by The White House Council on Women and Girls

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6. Abortion Is Found to Have Little Effect on Women’s Mental Health

By Pam Belluck | New York Times | 12.14.16

“It’s an idea that has long been used as an argument against abortion — that terminating a pregnancy causes women to experience emotional and psychological trauma. Some states require women seeking abortions to be counseled that they might develop mental health problems. Now a new study, considered to be the most rigorous to look at the question in the United States, undermines that claim. Researchers followed nearly 1,000 women who sought abortions nationwide for five years and found that those who had the procedure did not experience more depression, anxiety, low self-esteem or dissatisfaction with life than those who were denied it.”

Citing: Women’s Mental Health and Well-being 5 Years After Receiving or Being Denied an Abortion: A Prospective, Longitudinal Cohort Study, by M. Antonia Biggs, PhD; Ushma D. Upadhyay, PhD, MPH; Charles E. McCulloch, PhD; et al, JAMA Psychiatry

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In addition, we’ve added some of the latest research coming out on mothers, access to child care, and the safety net.

NEW RESEARCH REPORTS

More Than a Million Millennials are Becoming Moms Each Year

By Gretchen Livingston | Pew Research Center | January 2017

All told, Millennial women (those born from 1981 to 1997) accounted for about eight-in-ten (82 percent) U.S. births in 2015. At the same time, Millennials make up 31 percent of the adult U.S. population, and just over a third (34 percent) of the U.S. workforce. While they now account for the vast majority of annual U.S. births, Millennial women are waiting longer to become parents than prior generations did. Among Millennial women ages 18 to 33 in 2014, for instance, 42 percent were moms. But when women from Generation X – those born between 1965 and 1980 – were in the same age range, 49 percent were already moms, according to a Pew Research Center analysis of the Census Bureau’s Current Population Survey data. (The rising age at first birth is hardly limited to the Millennial generation. It has been a trend since at least 1970. Many factors may contribute, including a shift away from marriage, increasing educational attainment and the movement of women into the labor force.)

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State(s) of Head Start

By W. Steven Barnett Ph.D. and Allison H. Friedman-Krauss, Ph.D | National Institute for Early Education Research | December 2016

State(s) of Head Start is the first report to describe and analyze in detail Head Start enrollment, funding, quality, and duration, state-by-state. The report focuses on the 2014-2015 program year but also provides longitudinal data beginning with the 2006-2007 program year. Despite the fact that Head Start is a federally funded, national program, the report reveals that access to Head Start programs, funding per child, teacher education, quality of teaching, and duration of services all vary widely by state. This report’s findings underscore the need for greater coordination between Head Start and state and local government agencies to build high-quality early learning programs with widespread reach and adequate funding. The authors call for an independent bipartisan national commission to study the issues raised in this report and develop an action plan to ensure every eligible child in every state has an equal opportunity to benefit from Head Start.

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A Closer Look at Latino Access to Child Care Subsidies

By Christina Walker and Stephanie Schmit | Center for Law and Social Policy | December 2016

A recent CLASP analysis found that access to child care subsidies is sharply limited for all eligible children, but even more so for particular racial and ethnic groups and in particular states.  A striking finding is that eligible Latino children have very limited access to CCDBG-funded child care assistance. While 13 percent of all eligible children (ages 0-13, regardless of race/ethnicity) and 21 percent of eligible Black children receive child care assistance through CCDBG, only 8 percent of eligible Latino children get help. Access is even lower in many states, including Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Mississippi, Oregon, South Carolina, and Tennessee (see Appendix).This brief looks more deeply into the data on Latino children and offers potential policy solutions to improve access to child care assistance. CLASP’s “Disparate Access” work is intended to promote understanding of racial and ethnic differences in access to child care and early education and explore and uncover the reasons for such differences. This report is a companion piece to CLASP’s original report, Disparate Access: Head Start and CCDBG Data by Race and Ethnicity.

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A New Safety Net for an Era of Unstable Earnings

By Andrew Stettner, Michael Cassidy and George Wentworth | The Century Foundation | December 2016

Economic insecurity has been a hallmark of working families’ lives in the twenty-first century. Memories of the Great Recession—when unemployment reached its highest level in generations—are still fresh in the American consciousness. Workers who are laid off experience longer durations of unemployment than in previous economic eras, and even when they find work, they struggle to get back to their prior wage. Americans from all walks of life feel they can no longer count on steady forty-hour-per-week jobs. Workers in low-wage service industries can have their schedule changed on a weekly or even daily basis. There is rising national awareness of the independent workforce of freelancers and the contingent workforce of on-call and on-demand workers, including an increasing number working in the so-called “gig economy.” While these workers may gain flexibility, it comes at the price of economic stability.

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Breadwinning Mothers Are Increasingly the U.S. Norm

By Sarah Jane Glynn | Center for American Progress | December 2016

The Center for American Progress first described the role of working mothers as breadwinners in 2009 with The Shriver Report: A Woman’s Nation Changes Everything, in a chapter titled “The New Breadwinners.”1 Authored by former CAP economist Heather Boushey, “The New Breadwinners” was among the first pieces of research to quantify the ways that women’s labor force participation has increased since the 1960s and what that means for families’ incomes. This report updates Boushey’s original analysis of breadwinning and co-breadwinning mothers and a 2014 follow-up report from CAP—“Breadwinning Mothers, Then and Now”—using the most recent data available. While this newest report revises the original analysis, it also provides new analyses looking at differences in breadwinning and co-breadwinning based on race and place. Specifically, it dives deeper into differences between black and white mothers in the frequency with which they combine paid employment with family caregiving and the different ways that they contribute to their families’ bottom lines. Most notably, the report highlights differences in the rates of breadwinning and co-breadwinning among different racial and ethnic groups. It also explores how rates of breadwinning differ across the United States, looking at differences between states and between rural and metropolitan areas.

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To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org