Research News Roundup – June 2017


Black Women: Supporting Their Families—With Few Resources

By Gillian B. White|  | 6.12.17

“That heavy reliance on the work of black women helps explain why black women work more than women of other racial groups and are earning higher levels of education than they have historically. But despite their efforts to push for racial and gender equality throughout history, black women still get a raw deal economically, more than just about any other group, according to findings from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research and the National Domestic Workers Alliance..”

The Status of Black Women in the United States, by Asha DuMonthier, Chandra Childers, and Jessica Milli, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

Tweet This | Read Full Article | Download PDF

New study says older women in Hawaii more likely to live in poverty than older men

Anthony Pignataro || 6.14.17

“Many of the economic challenges that older women experience stem from inequities that women face earlier in life, including a persistent wage gap, the high cost of child care and a shortage of affordable housing,” said Dr. Colette Browne, the Richard S. and T. Rose Takasaki Endowed Professor in Social Policy at the School of Social Work and author of the report’s recommendations in a June 14 UH press release. “This builds up over the course of a lifetime and limits women’s ability to lay the foundation for economic security in retirement, especially for the many older single women living without a spouse.”

Citing: The Economic Security of Older Women and Men in Hawai’i, by Emma Williams-Baron, Julie Anderson, Cynthia Hess, and Jessica Milli, Institute for Women’s Policy Research

Tweet This | Read Full Article | Download PDF

Poverty really is the result of a state of mind — among rich people

By Joan Maya Mazelis |  | 6.20.17

“The poverty line is currently $24,600 per year for a family of four, and $16,240 for a family of two. The minimum wage pays just $7.25 per hour, or $15,080 for 40 hours a week, 52 weeks a year, if the worker never misses a day of work. In other words, the minimum wage only puts a family of one above the poverty line. There are only 12 counties in the entire United States where a worker making minimum wage can afford the rent on a one-bedroom apartment, and zero counties where a full-time minimum wage worker can pay the rent on a two-bedroom apartment.”

Citing: Out of Reach 2017: The High Cost of Housing, by Andrew Aurand, Dan Emmanuel, Diane Yentel, Ellen Errico, and Marjorie Pang, National Low Income Housing Coalition

Tweet This | Read Full Article | Download PDF

ILO: Reducing gender gaps would benefit women, society, and the economy

By Jessica Combes || 6.15.17

“In 2014, G20 leaders made a commitment to reduce the gap in participation rates between men and women by 25 per cent by the year 2025. The ILO report estimates that if this goal was [realized] at the global level, it has the potential to add $5.8 trillion dollars to the global economy, and this could also unlock large potential tax revenues.”

Citing: World Employment and Social Outlook: Trends for Women 2017, by Steven Tobin, Stefan Kühn, Richard Horne and Sheena Yoon, International Labour Organization

Tweet This | Read Full ArticleDownload PDF

Women Hold Two-Thirds of Nation’s Student Loan Debt

By Jaya Saxena | | 6.13.17

“Race also affects how student debt is paid. An analysis of expected family contributions to college tuition shows that white men benefit the most from family wealth, over $10,000, while black women can expect to get just $3,447 from their families to help pay for college. That means black women tend to take out the most loans. “The typical white family has 16 times the accrued wealth of the typical black family in the United States,” says the report. “It is unsurprising, therefore, that students and families of different races and ethnicities have very different levels of resources to contribute to the costs of postsecondary education.””

Citing: Deeper in Debt: Women and Student Loans, by Kevin Miller, Raina Nelson, and Sarah Dice, American Association of University Women

Tweet ThisRead Full Article | Download PDF

States with more black people have less generous welfare benefits, study says

By Tracy Jan | | 6.6.17

“Today, for every 100 poor families in America, just 24 families receive cash assistance, compared with 64 in 1996. Only a quarter of TANF [(Temporary Assistance for Needy Families)] money now goes toward cash payments, down from 71 percent in 1997. Instead, states increased their TANF spending on promoting work activities, providing child care and preschool education, and offering other services not limited to low-income families.”

Citing: Why Does Cash Welfare Depend on Where You Live? How and Why State TANF Programs Vary, by Heather Hahn, Laudan Y. Aron, Cary Lou, Eleanor Pratt, Adaeze Okoli, Urban Institute

Tweet This | Read Full Article | Download PDF


Representation Matters: Women in the U.S. Congress

By Kelly Dittmar, Kira Sanbonmatsu, Susan J. Carroll, Debbie Walsh, and Catherine Wineinger | Center for American Women and Politics and Eagleton Institute of Politics at Rutgers, The State University of New JerseyPolitical Parity | June 2017

A century after the first woman to win election to the U.S. Congress, Jeannette Rankin, took her seat in the House of Representatives, women remain underrepresented in the nation’s legislature with women constituting just 19.4% of members of Congress in 2017—below the worldwide average for national governing bodies. Moreover, the importance of having women serving in Congress is still not fully appreciated or understood. […]. What we find in our research—based on interviews with 83 of the 108 women who served as Senators, Representatives, and Delegates—is that the women on both sides of the aisle in the 114th Congress very much believe that their presence and their voices mattered, and they provided considerable evidence of achievements despite the overall environment of gridlock and party polarization in which they operated. Our interviews revealed that a shared work style, common experiences as women, and personal relationships forged in single-sex spaces within Congress enable women to work together across party lines. Women of color—who constituted a record number of members in the 114th Congress—emphasized the significance of their presence in Congress and the imperative of including the perspectives of women of color and minority communities more generally in the policymaking process.

Tweet This Download PDF

Intermarriage in the U.S. 50 Years after Loving v. Virginia

By Gretchen Livingston and Anna Brown | Pew Research Center | May 2017

In 2015, 17 percent of all U.S. newlyweds had a spouse of a different race or ethnicity, marking more than a fivefold increase since 1967, when 3% of newlyweds were intermarried, according to a new Pew Research Center analysis of U.S. Census Bureau data. In that year, the U.S. Supreme Court in the Loving v. Virginia case ruled that marriage across racial lines was legal throughout the country. Until this ruling, interracial marriages were forbidden in many states. More broadly, one-in-ten married people in 2015 – not just those who recently married – had a spouse of a different race or ethnicity. This translates into 11 million people who were intermarried.

Tweet This | Download PDF

Paid Family and Medical Leave: An Issue Whose Time Has Come

By Aparna Mathur, Isabel Sawhill, Angela Rachidi, et al. | American Enterprise Institute and Brookings Institution | June 2017

Over the past year, the AEI-Brookings Paid Family Leave Working Group has developed recommendations for a federal paid leave policy. While the focus of our work and this report is on paid parental leave, we recognize the importance of families being able to take time for their own illness to look after relatives. We encourage more research and analysis of how a paid leave policy could be expanded to incorporate leave for these reasons. However, this report focuses only on paid parental leave at the time of the birth or adoption of a child. In the course of our work, we developed eight principles to guide policymaking in this area. They include preventing family hardship when a baby is born or adopted, maintaining long-term attachment to the labor force, supporting children’s healthy development, encouraging gender equity, minimizing costs to employers, ensuring access for the less advantaged, incorporating a shared contribution on the part of workers, and fully funding any new benefit. We also explored the design of a policy in more detail, looking at such elements as who should be eligible, the generosity of the benefit (wage replacement), job protection, and financing mechanisms.

Tweet This Download PDF

Our Aging, Caring Nation: Why a U.S. Paid Leave Plan Must Provide More Than Time to Care for New Children

By Julia Kortrey and Vicki Shabo| National Partnership for Women and Families | June 2017

This brief demonstrates that, although paid parental leave is critically important and must be included in any national paid leave plan, a policy that only covers parents caring for newborn or newly adopted children is insufficient. As the country’s population ages and people live and work longer, any national paid leave policy must reflect the well-established types of care included in the FMLA more than two decades ago. Only a comprehensive policy that recognizes the range of serious family and medical needs can meet the needs of America’s working people and the family members who rely on them.

Tweet This Download PDF

Building the Caring Economy: Workforce Investments to Expand Access to Affordable, High-Quality and Long-Term Care

By Nina Dastur, Indivar Dutta-Gupta, Laura Tatum, Peter Edelman, Kali Grant, and Casey Goldvale | Georgetown University Law, Center on Poverty and Inequality | May 2017

For many families, the struggle to get by is compounded by the demands and expense of providing care for young children, older family members, and/or family members with disabilities. Caregiving—with its attendant love and joy and often sacrifice—enhances our lives, but too often families in the United States find themselves on their own as they seek to meet these caregiving needs while balancing work and other obligations. This report proposes caregiving jobs investments to address two national needs: the pressing need for caregiving; and the equally pressing need for good jobs. With these aims, we offer proposals that promote the well-being of children, older adults, people with disabilities, and their families by creating and sustaining good jobs in the caregiving sector.

Tweet This | Download PDF

Workforce of Today, Workforce of Tomorrow: The Business Case for High-Quality Childcare

By Katharine B. Stevens | The U.S. Chamber of Commerce Foundation’s Center for Education and Workforce | June 2017

American  business  depends  on  a  strong  workforce,  now  and  in  the  future,  to  compete  and succeed globally. But America is facing an unprecedented workforce crisis: a large and growing shortage of skilled workers. According  to  a  2016  survey  by  the  Aberdeen  Group,  four out of  five  employers believe  that today’s labor pool lacks skills and abilities essential to business success.

Recent  strategies  to  address  the  skills  gap  have  focused  largely  focused  on  addressing its immediate  consequences. While this  is  critical  for  business  success today,  we  also need strategies  that  will  build  the  human  capital  of  tomorrow — to revitalize  our workforce  for generations to come. High-quality childcare, which enables adults to work while laying a foundation for children’s success in school and  beyond,  is  an  under-recognized but promising strategy for addressing America’s growing workforce crisis. Done right, childcare provides a powerful two-generation approach to building the skilled workforce on which our country’s continued prosperity depends.

Tweet This | Download PDF

The Financial Cost of Rape

The Financial Cost of Rape

By Sarah Gonzalez Bocinski and Malore Dusenbery

Sexual violence continues to be an epidemic in the United States: one in five women (19.3 percent) and 1.7 percent of men have been raped in their lifetime, and approximately 43.9 percent of women, and 23.4 percent of men will experience other forms of sexual violence. The effects of sexual victimization on survivors are significant and long-lasting. Physical and psychological trauma can diminish quality of life, and survivors incur significant economic costs in the immediate aftermath of an assault and across their lifespan. Direct costs may include short and long-term physical or mental health care, damaged property, and fees associated with the justice system. Sexual violence can also lead to long-term mental health issues, such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, depression or anxiety, and risky coping behaviors, such as smoking, drug or alcohol use, or unsafe sex. These consequences of the violence can make it difficult for survivors to complete their education and maintain employment.

While several studies have examined the economic impact of rape on victims and society, including through health care costs, productivity losses, and justice system costs, much of this research is dated. Two new studies explored the financial cost of rape to survivors. The first study, “The Monetary Cost of Sexual Assault to Privately Insured U.S. Women in 2013,” calculated victims’ out-of-pocket health costs within the first 30 days following initial treatment. The second study, “Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults,” estimated health care utilization, lost productivity, and criminal justice costs incurred by rape victims.

Out-of-Pocket Health Costs

To determine the out-of-pocket costs associated with the treatment of sexual assault, the authors reviewed payment data from the Truven Analytics Health MarketScan database, associated with 1,355 female rape patients in the United States seeking medical attention in 2013. Of the 1,355 patients, 32 were admitted as inpatients, and paid an average of $788 for their stay. Those who were treated as outpatients paid an average of $316 for related care. Patients also incurred an average of $56 in prescription drug costs for antibiotics, HIV prevention, pain medication, anxiety medication, and emergency contraception. In total, the authors found the average medical cost of rape within the first 30 days following treatment to be $6,737 – 14 percent ($948) of which was paid by the victim.

In a previous study using data from the 1996 National Violence Against Women Survey and Medical Expenditure Panel Survey, researchers estimated that the mean cost of medical care for intimate partner rape victims who sustained injuries during their most recent victimization and received treatment was $2,084, or $3,191 in 2013 dollars, with victims paying 29.2 percent of the costs. Of those receiving mental health services, the mean cost was $978 ($1,497 in 2013 dollars), with victims paying 33.6 percent out-of-pocket. The combined out-of-pocket medical and mental health costs to victims was $1,435 in 2013 dollars.

Lifetime Costs

A recent study estimated the lifetime cost of rape per victim with new analysis of the 2011 National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS) in combination with administrative data from government and non-government agencies including the U.S. Department of Justice, emergency room departments, the International Federation of Health Plans, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, and Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System. The authors calculated total physical and mental health costs, productivity losses resulting from fewer hours worked or maintaining the household, criminal justice costs, and other costs such as property loss. They estimated that the average lifetime cost of rape is $122,461 per victim, with an economic burden for the population of close to $3.1 trillion over victims’ lifetimes, based on data indicating that an estimated 23 million U.S. women and two million men will experience rape.

Other researchers have also examined the cost of rape. Analysis of the monetary costs of crimes committed by homicide offenders in eight states found that the average cost to society per rape was $448,532, including criminal justice costs, cost of incarceration, time served, and lost productivity. The average lifetime victim costs were estimated to be $138,310 in 2008 dollars. Another study also measured costs to both victim and society by combining victim injury data, medical costs data, and jury awards. Using data from the 2006 National Crime Victimization Survey, medical unit costs from Corso et al., and Jury Verdict Research the authors estimated the total societal cost per rape was $240,776 in 2008 dollars.

Financial Recovery is Unlikely

Obtaining assistance through Crime Victims Compensation (CVC) and restitution can be challenging for rape survivors. Many of the eligibility requirements for CVC, such as reporting to police and cooperating with investigations, require survivors to engage in a system they may want to avoid. Approximately 60 percent of victims do not report to the police, for reasons such as fear of retaliation, or of not being helped. According to the National Association of Crime Victim Compensation Boards, eight percent of CVC funds go to victims of sexual assault. Even when victims do pursue criminal justice, restitution is often an unlikely prospect for them because of low conviction rates – less than one percent of perpetrators receive a felony conviction.

Referenced Studies:

Corso, P, J Mercy, T Simon, E Finkelstein, and T Miller. 2007. “Medical Costs and Productivity Losses Due to Interpersonal and Self-Directed Violence in the United States.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine 32 (6): 474–482.e2.

DeLisi, Matt, Anna Kosloski, Molly Sween, Emily Hachmeister, Matt Moore, and Alan Drury. 2010. “Murder by Numbers: Monetary Costs Imposed by a Sample of Homicide Offenders.” Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology 21 (4): 501–13.

McCollister, Kathryn E., Michael T. French, and Hai Fang. 2010. “The Cost of Crime to Society: New Crime-Specific Estimates for Policy and Program Evaluation.” Drug and Alcohol Dependence 108 (1–2): 98–109.

National Center for Injury Prevention and Control. Costs of Intimate Partner Violence Against Women in the United States. Atlanta (GA): Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2003.

Peterson, Cora, Sarah DeGue, Curtis Florence, and Colby Lokey. 2017. “Lifetime Economic Burden of Rape Among U.S. Adults.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, Jun; 52 (6): 691-701.

Tennessee, Ashley, Tamala Bradham, Brandi White, and Kit Simpson. 2017. “The Monetary Cost of Sexual Assault to Privately Insured US Women in 2013.” American Journal of Public Health 107, no. 6 (June 1, 2017): 983-988.

To view more of IWPR’s research, visit


Building Family-Friendly Campuses: Strategies to Promote College Success Among Student Parents

Building Family-Friendly Campuses: Strategies to Promote College Success Among Student Parents

By Melanie Kruvelis

This post is the third in a new series by Higher Education Today, Beyond the Margins: Meeting the Needs of Underserved Students.

For parents, receiving a college degree is one of the best investments they can make to improve the financial security, social mobility, and overall well-being of their family. Research has repeatedly shown, for example, that college graduates have higher lifetime earnings than their peers with just a high school diploma, and are more likely to report experiencing better health than those with lower educational attainment. Yet for the 4.8 million college students raising children, navigating higher education—a space primarily designed with young, non-parenting adults in mind—can be uniquely challenging.

Today, more than a quarter of all undergraduate college students are raising children, and about 44 percent are doing so without the support of a partner. The majority of single parents in college—80 percent—are women. Women of color are particularly likely to be single parents while in college: Nearly 40 percent of Black women and more than a quarter of American Indian/Alaska Native women in higher education are raising a child without the support of a partner (in comparison to 19 percent of Hispanic women and 14 percent of white women).

While the share of parents enrolled in college has been steadily growing—according to the most recent data, the proportion of students with dependent children has increased 30 percent from 2004-12—the share of parenting students who complete college remains low. The most recent data show that about half of all college students earn a degree or certificate within six years of enrolling, while only a third of student parents complete school, with the rate even lower for single parents (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Share of Students Who Attained a Degree or Certificate Within Six Years of Enrollment, by Parent and Marital Status, 2003-09

Though the reasons for leaving college without a degree vary, the heightened financial and time pressures faced by student parents can pose significant challenges to graduating. Compared with their non-parenting peers, student parents are nearly twice as likely to live in poverty, and are much less likely to have the resources to pay for college than their dependent peers. Compounding the financial pressure, student parents must also find affordable child care, which is often a significant expense. According to the Care Index, the average cost of center-based care in the United States—about $9,589 annually—is outpacing the average cost of in-state tuition at $9,410. Meanwhile, the share of campuses with childcare centers continues to decline, despite the growing need.

As colleges work to improve attainment rates and address economic, racial/ethnic and gender inequality on their campuses, institutions should take steps to better understand and support their diverse student population, including students with families of their own. Ensuring that student data can be disaggregated by parental and marital status, for instance, can help administrators better understand the needs and experiences of students who are balancing school and parenting. Institutional leaders can work to protect funding for student parent supports, such as Pell Grants and the federal Child Care Access Means Parents in School (CCAMPIS) program, which is the only source of federal funding available to facilitate low-income college students’ access to child care.

And institutions can employ strategies to make campuses more family-friendly, ranging from improving students’ access to childcare on- and off-campus, to stocking administrative offices with toys. A few examples of interventions that support parenting students’ college success include:

Connecting Student Parents with Financial Support and Education: The University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee’s Life Impact Program provides participating low-income student parents with a $5,000 renewable scholarship. Life Impact Scholars are also connected with a life coach who helps students navigate on- and off-campus resources, such as child care, transportation supports, and career development programs.

At Norwalk Community College in Connecticut, parenting students can enroll in the Family Economic Security Program, which provides financial coaching, in addition to achievement coaching, peer support, and educational programs, to learners who have experienced interruptions in their college pursuit.

Targeting Academic Support to Student Parents’ Needs: Endicott College’s Keys to Degrees program provides tailored tutoring to participating student parents until they can maintain a 3.0 GPA. Keys to Degrees staff also coach students on how to talk to professors about balancing school with family responsibilities, help them secure internships related to their degree and ensure their graduation within four years.

At the University of California, San Diego, student parents can apply for priority enrollment so they can secure the courses they need to graduate while also creating a schedule that allows them to balance their school, family and work responsibilities more easily.

Making Child Care Accessible and Affordable: At the University of Michigan, low-income student parents may access a child care subsidy through the school’s Financial Aid Office, which they can use for licensed child care in the community.

Parenting students attending Lane Community College in Oregon are offered no-cost assistance finding child care through an on-campus child care resource and referral center.

Building Peer Community: At the University of Alabama, the Undergraduate and Graduate Parent Support programs developed online forums so that student parents can connect on issues related to balancing schoolwork with family responsibilities.

Student parents at the University of Minnesota-Twin Cities can attend group lunches for parenting students, coordinated by the university’s Student Parent HELP Center.

Establishing a Family-Friendly Campus Environment: At Niagara County Community College in New York, the Mapping Opportunities for Moms program equips administrative and counseling offices with toys, signaling to students and college staff that families are welcome on campus, in addition to providing single mothers with a range of supports to help them attain a degree or certificate.

The Family Resource Center at Los Angeles Valley Community College has created a space on campus for the college’s parenting students, where they host play groups, as well as baby clothes exchanges, book exchanges, in addition to other two-generation services for parents and their children.

These are a few examples from a menu of options institutions may consider when developing family-friendly programming, and can be mixed, matched, and molded to fit the particular needs and capacity of institutions. While the approaches vary, what these supports have in common is the ability to help stabilize low-income student parents so they have both the time and economic security to focus on attaining a degree. By advocating for student parent supports, developing a greater understanding of student parents’ needs and implementing targeted interventions, colleges can build a more welcoming, productive environment that helps parents complete school and launch careers that provide economic security for their families.

To view more of IWPR’s research, visit


IWPR stands with Pride!

IWPR stands with PRIDE!

Pride month is celebrated across the United States every June. It is a time when we honor the impact that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals have had on the country.

On June 26, 2015, when the Supreme Court of the United States recognized the right of same-sex partners to legally marry, the ruling not only meant increased access to benefits for same-sex couples and their children, it brought with it the hope of future gains through legal precedent for equal treatment under the law.

IWPR data show that we need for faster progress to ensure that LGBTQ+ individuals enjoy equal rights and opportunities in employment and earnings, and access to basic benefits to promote health and safety.

Some research done by IWPR regarding these inequalities faced by LGBTQ+ individuals includes:

Status of Women in the States
As of 2014, 29 states – mostly Midwestern, Mountain, and Southern states – still lacked statewide protections against employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity.

  • Despite their strong participation in the labor force, many women living with a same-sex partner experience economic insecurity
  • About 1 in 3 (34 percent) of LGBTQ+ women did not have enough money for food between 2011 and 2012, compared with 20 percent of non-LGBTQ+ women
  • Lesbian and bisexual women aged 18 and older are more likely than heterosexual women to report having psychological distress – LGBTQ+ youth are more likely to experience mood and anxiety disorders, depression, and suicidal ideation and attempts

Status of Women in the South
In addition to employment discrimination, LGBTQ+ people still face legal barriers to equality as many states do not protect LGBTQ+ people from being evicted or denied a home loan and denied health coverage on the basis of their identities

  • Some states are attempting to pass laws specifically prohibiting second-parent adoption for same-sex couples
  • Women aged 25 and older living with a same-sex partner in the South are much more likely than women overall to have a bachelor’s degree or higher
  • Southern women in same-sex households have higher rates of labor force participation relative to heterosexual women who are married to men or single

Status of Black Women in the United States

  • Research suggests that Black LGBTQ+ individuals, especially those who are victims of violence, experience heightened discrimination from law enforcement
  • Once in prison, LGBTQ+ women of color report high levels of discrimination and assault within prisons. Forty percent of girls in juvenile detention describe themselves as lesbian, bisexual, gender questioning/gender non-conforming, or transgender

Facts matter. That is why the Institute for Women’s Policy Research works to produce high quality research on women and families around the country and around the world, we give you the facts.

The Institute for Women’s Policy Research conducts and communicates research to inspire public dialogue, shape policy, and improve the lives and opportunities of women of diverse backgrounds, circumstances, and experiences.

Donate Now

To view more of IWPR’s research, visit

What the Research Says: Job Training

What the Research Says: Job Training

The Trump Administration declared this to be Workforce Development Week, focusing on job training programs, apprenticeships, and improving America’s economy.

Current funding levels of job training programs leave administrators with limited resources to provide supportive services to program participants. The Trump Administration’s proposed budget would cut job training funding even further.

Job Training + Supportive Services = Greater Likelihood of Success

Supportive services are a critical feature of programs that help underserved populations succeed in the job market. That’s the basic conclusion of IWPR’s recent Job Training Success Project. The five-report series demonstrates the importance of providing trainees services such as case management, transportation assistance, child care, and emergency cash, among others. Supports are associated with improved training and employment outcomes even when controlling for factors such as gender, race, age, marital status, education, number of dependent children, and immigrant status, among other factors.

>>Read the new one-pager on findings from IWPR’s Job Training Success Project.

>>Tweet this

proud female auto mechanic

Job Training Participants Say Supports Are “Incredibly Important” in Achieving Workforce Success

IWPR’s nationwide online survey 1,900 job training program participants, conducted in 2016, was the largest survey exploring the relationship between supportive services and program and employment outcomes and the first to examine which services participants need most. Many survey respondents reported that receiving supportive services was vital to their ability to complete job training.  As one trainee said, “All the assistance I received from this program has been incredibly important in keeping me in my program.  Without it, I have to make decisions like whether to pay for rent or food or pay for school fees.”

>>Read the new one-pager on findings from the national survey.

>>Tweet this

IWPR is a national partner of the National Center for Women’s Equity in Apprenticeship and Employment. For more information on the Center’s work to expand access to apprenticeships and non-traditional careers for women, visit