RESEARCH MAKING THE NEWS
Here’s How Long It Will Take for Each State to Give Women Equal Pay
“Florida may be the first state to close the gender wage gap. Women in Wyoming, however, may have to wait until year 2153 until they make as much as their male counterparts. That’s according to projections released by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research on Wednesday. Julie Anderson, a senior research associate with IWPR, used Census data to measure how wages for full-time, year-round working men and women have changed in each state since 1959. Then she used these historical trends to predict how much longer it will take to close the pay gap between the sexes. The answer, to say the least, is depressing.”
Citing: Projected Year the Wage Gap Will Close by State by Julie Anderson, Jessica Milli, and Melanie Kruvelis, Institute for Women’s Policy Research
The Pay Gap Could Vanish For All Women – Sometime in the 23rd Century
“Despite strides in the 1980s and 1990s, the pay gap between the sexes hasn’t budged in more than a decade. That’s even with growing research and outcry that’s prompted some companies to review — and vow to fix — broad discrepancies in their own workforces. The numbers are glaring: Women make up half the U.S. college-educated workforce but those with full-time jobs were on average paid 80 cents for every dollar earned by men in nearly every occupation for which there was sufficient earnings data in 2015, according to the Institute for Women’s Policy Research. The gap is especially pronounced when comparing median weekly earnings and far deeper for women of color.”
Citing: The Gender Wage Gap 2016: Earnings Differences by Race and Ethnicity by Ariane Hegewisch and Emma Williams-Baron, Institute for Women’s Policy Research
New Research Identifies a ‘Sea of Despair’ Among White, Working-Class Americans
“Sickness and early death in the white working class could be rooted in poor job prospects for less-educated young people as they first enter the labor market, a situation that compounds over time through family dysfunction, social isolation, addiction, obesity and other pathologies, according to a study published Thursday by two prominent economists.”
Citing: Mortality and Morbidity in the 21st Century by Anne Case and Angus Deaton, Princeton University
Women in Cybersecurity Face an Uphill Battle. Mentorship Could Help.
“Overall, the analysis paints a grim picture of how women are represented in the cybersecurity field, as females account for just 11 percent of all cybersecurity professionals, earn less than their male counterparts across the board, and generally feel under-appreciated by their employers. The disparity remains at the executive level too, the research shows, with men being nine times more likely to be in a managerial position, and four times more likely to be in executive management.”
Citing: The 2017 Global Information Security Workforce Study: Women in Cybersecurity, by International Information System Security Certification Consortium, The Center for Cyber Safety and Education, and the Executive Women’s Forum
Women in Finance are Punished Much More than Men for Violating the Rules
“By now, it’s well established that women are paid less than men, and receive fewer opportunities for advancement. Now, a study shows there’s also a gender gap when it comes to discipline. Male financial advisors are three times more likely to be involved in misconduct than women, but women are 50% more likely to lose their jobs as a result, according to a new paper by business professors at Stanford and the universities of Chicago and Minnesota. Women, who are less likely to be repeat offenders, also have a harder time finding new jobs after they’re fired.”
Citing: When Harry Fired Sally: The Double Standard in Punishing Misconduct, by Mark Egan, University of Minnesota; Gregor Matvos, University of Chicago; Amit Seru, Stanford University
Trump’s Child Care Plan Is Gift to the Rich, Report Says
“The heart of Trump’s [child care] plan is to significantly expand the tax deduction that families can take for child care expenses for kids under 13. Anyone making less than $250,000 ($500,000 if married) could deduct the average cost of child care in their state. (The average would be based on the age of their child, since it usually costs more to care for infants and toddlers). That sounds great, but families have to pay income taxes to Uncle Sam in order to take advantage of the deduction. Many working class families pay nothing in federal income taxes because they earn too little in income to owe anything.”
Citing: Who Benefits from President Trump’s Child Care Proposals?, Lily L. Batchelder, Elaine Maag, Chye-Ching Huang, and Emily Horton, Tax Policy Center
NEW RESEARCH REPORTS
Does Quebec’s Subsidized Child Care Policy Give Boys and Girls an Equal Start?
By Michael J. Kottelenberg and Steven F. Lehrer | NBER | March 2017
Although an increasing body of research promotes the development of universal early education and care programs, little is known about the extent to which these programs affect gender gaps in academic achievement and other developmental outcomes. Analyzing the introduction of universal highly-subsidized child care in Quebec, we first demonstrate that there are no statistically significant gender differences in the average effect of access to universal child care on child outcomes. However, we find substantial heterogeneity in policy impacts on the variance of developmental and behavioral scores across genders. Additionally, our analysis reveals significant evidence of differential parenting practices by gender in response to the introduction of the policy. The analysis is suggestive that the availability of subsidized child care changed home environments disproportionately, and may be responsible for the growing gender gaps in behavioral outcomes observed after child care is subsidized.
The State of American Wages 2016
By Elise Gould | Economic Policy Institute | March 2017
Rising wage inequality has been a defining feature of the American economy for nearly four decades. In 2016, with an improving economy, most workers at all income and educational levels finally began to see an increase in wages. But large gaps in equality by gender, race, and wage level remain, and some of these gaps are increasing.
Hungry and Homeless in College: Results from a National Study of Basic Needs Insecurity in Higher Education
By Sara Goldrick-Rab, Jed Richardson, and Anthony Hernandez | Wisconsin HOPE Lab | March 2017
Food and housing insecurity among the nation’s community college students threatens their health and wellbeing, along with their academic achievements. Addressing these basic needs is critical to ensuring that more students not only start college, but also have the opportunity to complete degrees. This report presents findings from the largest survey ever conducted of basic needs insecurity among college students. In 2015, the Wisconsin HOPE Lab published the research report Hungry to Learn, a study based on a survey of approximately 4,000 students at ten community colleges in seven states. This study includes more than 33,000 students at 70 community colleges in 24 states. While this is not a nationally representative sample of students or colleges, it is far greater in size and diversity than prior samples, and provides information to shed new light on critical issues warranting further research.
From Day One: An Agenda for Advancing Women Leaders in Africa
By Joyce Banda | Wilson Center | March 2017
All across the globe, leadership programs designed and led by civil society, governments, and the international community seek to imbue leadership skills in women and girls. The potential impact of these programs, however, is undermined by the extremely gendered political, cultural and social practices of society. Aspiring and existing women leaders face their own unique challenges, such as lacking appropriate training and financing, violence, and issues including media coverage and fake news. More than 60% of Africa’s population lives in rural areas where these challenges, especially to young girls, are the most pronounced. In order to ensure women in Africa have the same opportunities as men to become leaders, African leaders and the international community must address the unique challenges facing women and girls to become the leaders they were born to be.
Investing in Workforce Program Innovation: A Formative Evaluation of Five Workforce Organizations’ Experiences during the Human Capital Innovation Fund Initiative
By Ranita Jain, Amanda Newman, and Marcela Montes | Aspen Institute | March 2017
In local labor markets across the country, workforce organizations are striving to help unemployed and under-employed individuals prepare for, connect to, and advance in employment. To support this work, the Capital One Foundation established its Human Capital Innovation Fund (HCIF), which between 2012 and 2016 invested in building the capacity of five workforce organizations to pursue new strategies. These organizations are DC Central Kitchen in Washington, DC, the Greater New Orleans Foundation in New Orleans, LA, and Brooklyn Workforce Innovations, The Door, and JobsFirstNYC in New York, NY. In this report, the researchers describe the five organizations’ experiences planning, implementing, and adapting new strategies. It offers insights into the complex work of developing and maintaining relationships that cross institutions.
Towards a Better Future for Women and Work: Voices of Women and Men
Gallup and the International Labour Organization surveyed the world’s women and men to better understand their perceptions about women and work. Universally, the study found that the top challenge that men and women identify for working women is maintaining the balance between work and family. But this is not the only challenge these women face — and struggles aren’t the same everywhere. Women in developed economies, for example, also frequently mention unequal pay, while women in developing economies are more likely to cite unfair treatment and abuse in the workplace.
To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org