How Does Your State Rank?

KIDSCOUNT Data CenterThe 2011 KIDS COUNT Data Book is now available.

By Mallory Mpare

The 2011 KIDS COUNT Data Book (a project of the Annie E. Casey Foundation) was released today. Similar to IWPR’s Status of Women in the States initiative, the Data Book provides state rankings based on key indicators of child well-being. The message this year, “America’s Children, America’s Challenge: Promoting Opportunity for the Next Generation,” focuses on how children and their families are coping post recession. This edition includes data on the status of children with at least one unemployed parent in 2010 as well as data on children affected by foreclosure since 2007.

Past IWPR research shows that early care and education programs are crucial to a thriving economy. The KIDS COUNT Data Book not only serves as a comprehensive resource on the status of children in the United States, but also provides data on the role of investing in early childhood programs in order for the next generation to succeed.

IWPR joins the Annie E. Casey Foundation in inviting you to explore the findings and see how your state ranks!

Mallory Mpare is the Communications Assistant with the Institute for Women’s Policy Research.


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

Removing Barriers to Gender Inequality through Data

by Aaron Stanley

This past spring, the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) worked with the World Bank on its global qualitative assessment, Defining Gender in the XXI Century: Conversations with men and women around the world. That qualitative assessment forms part of the data that has been analyzed for the next annual World Development Report (WDR), coming out in September 2011, entitled Gender Equality and Development.

To collect data, World Bank staff and affiliates conducted “rapid qualitative assessments” in nineteen countries. The research included case studies and roughly 500 focus group interviews with male and female youth, adults, and adolescents in urban and rural communities.

Interviewers asked focus group participants about their perceived gender roles, inequalities, and changes in cultural norms and values in their communities. Then, interview transcripts were sent to IWPR where staff used the qualitative research software Nvivo to code the focus group comments.

Qualitative research is used to investigate the impact of human experience, social context, and historical background on the dynamics of an issue, region, or peoples. The World Bank and IWPR have used qualitative research to better understand the complicated contexts of gender roles and the choices being made within communities. Coding the material allows analysts to more easily find comparisons among groups and regions. From the insights and analyses that come out of this coded data, specific recommendations can better reflect local values while promoting equality and the status of women throughout the world.

I worked as one of the IWPR coders, especially for the transcriptions that were in French (other coders worked on the Spanish and English language transcriptions). For me, this project was really thought-provoking. To read the words of women and men of different ages describing some of the extreme variations in the circumstances of women throughout the world made me think about the need for continued development and programs that target women’s equality, but also about positive strides being made by women and programs that focus on women in developing nations.

Leading the assessment’s Analysis Team were IWPR Study Director Jane Henrici, Ph.D., and Research Analyst Allison Helmuth. Shirley Adelstein, Sarah Conner, Elisa Garcia, Layla Moughari, Annamaria Sundbye, Bethany Timmons, Kennedy Turner, Claudia Williams, and I provided coding and research assistance. All of us look forward to seeing the report come out next month.

More information about the qualitative assessment, including the methodology and a list of countries included in the study, can be found at the World Bank’s World Development Report website.

Aaron Stanley is a former IWPR Research Intern and currently a subcommittee staff intern at the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee. He attends Boston University where he studies international relations and African studies.


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

Life-Time Self-Sufficiency: Eight Things Every Young Woman Should Know

By Minjon Tholen and Heidi Reynolds-Stenson

An Institute for Women’s Policy Research study analyzing men and women’s earnings over a 15-year span found that women in the prime working ages of 26 to 59 made only 38 percent of what prime working-age men made during the same time span. This major gap is due to occupational segregation, discrimination, caregiving obligations, and other factors, and creates a critical obstacle for women’s economic security throughout their working years and into retirement. Depending on a woman’s socioeconomic status and race/ethnicity, this gap may be even larger. Here are eight things all young women need to know now to be self-sufficient later.

1. Education

Education levels are strongly associated with earnings. The median weekly earnings of bachelor’s degree holders are 65.8 percent higher than those with only a high school degree. Women increasingly recognize the need to further their education and now outnumber men among those graduating with bachelor’s degrees, yet women still earn less than men at every level of educational attainment.  Postsecondary education is therefore an important tool for young women to increase economic security over their lifetime.

2. Reproductive Choice

Since educational attainment is a major determining factor of one’s income levels throughout life, and completing high school or college is difficult to combine with child-rearing responsibilities, a woman’s ability to control her own reproductive life is crucial for her economic security. If you are in school and have children, familiarize yourself with and use the student parent support services available in your school and/or community, and advocate for more such services.

3. Occupational Segregation

Many women work in occupations that are traditionally female-dominated and are undervalued and underpaid compared to male-dominated occupations. As of the 1990s, after decades during which occupations increasingly became more ‘mixed’, further gender integration stalled. There are now proportionately fewer women in Information Technology occupations, which are generally well-paid, than there were 15 years ago. As a young woman choosing a career, explore non-traditional career options and keep in mind the implications your career choice may have for your ability to support yourself into the future.

4. Wage Gap

Women also earn less than men within nearly every occupation, indicating that occupational segregation is only part of the story. The gender wage gap begins early (with young women starting off at lower salaries than young men with comparable qualifications in comparable positions), widens over time, and can be larger or smaller depending on one’s race/ethnicity.  Part of the problem may be that young women are less likely than young men to negotiate for a higher starting salary or a raise.  Also, many employers work to keep pay information confidential; nearly half of all workers say they are either contractually forbidden or strongly discouraged from discussing their pay with their co-workers. Knowledge is power. So, talk to your co-workers, do research on average pay in your industry, and negotiate your salary. Know what you’re worth and ask for it.

5. Discrimination and Harassment

Research indicates that a significant portion of the wage gap within occupations cannot be fully explained by known factors—such as education or experience—suggesting that gender discrimination is still a significant barrier to women’s economic progress. Everyone has a right to a workplace free of discrimination and harassment based on gender or race/ethnicity. Know your rights under the law, familiarize yourself with the policies and protections at your workplace, and speak up when you feel these rights are violated.

6. Work/life balance

Although the majority of women are active in the workforce, they remain the primary caregivers to children and other dependents. Balancing work and personal life can be a struggle for many women and taking time out of work can have a long-term impact on your earnings and job security. Find out whether your employer offers flexible work arrangements and is subject to the Family and Medical Leave Act, in order to know your rights and responsibilities when balancing your work life and personal life.

7. Social Security

Compared to men, women rely on Social Security for a longer period of time (because they live longer) and depend on Social Security for a greater share of their income.  Yet, women receive, on average, significantly lower Social Security benefits due to a lifetime of lower wages and periods of decreased employment due to caregiving responsibilities for children, parents, or others. As a young woman, be aware that there is strong likelihood that you will live alone for at least part of your retirement. Educate yourself on how to maximize your Social Security benefits, strive towards ensuring other sources of income in retirement, and work to protect this program which is so vital to so many women and men.

8. Assets, Savings, and Pension Plans

Women face specific barriers to acquiring assets, building up savings, and investing in a pension plan. Women’s lifelong lower earnings due to occupational segregation, the wage gap, and caregiving responsibilities make it difficult to accumulate assets and savings. Women are also significantly less likely than men to have access to and participate in employer-sponsored retirement or pension plans. On top of these factors, women who do receive income from their own pensions receive on average less than half as much as men. To offset reliance on Social Security, start thinking about other ways to supplement your income in retirement early in your life and career.

Be cognizant of how gender inequality impacts your ability to be economically secure.  These inequalities are reflected in policies, institutions, and attitudes that affect all of us on a daily basis.  Know you have the ability to change this by educating yourself and others, and advocating for women-friendly policies. For in-depth studies on the issues described above and many others, visit the Institute for Women’s Policy Research research portal.

Minjon Tholen and Heidi Reynolds-Stenson are Research Interns at the Institute for Women’s Policy Research


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org

Now is the Time to Raise Women’s Voices in Yemen

by Minjon Tholen

Women have been instrumental to movements happening across the Middle East and North Africa. The “Arab Spring” has been an opportune time for women to make their voices heard and increase their political and civic participation. In Yemen, women were among the earliest and most vocal protesters for social and political change. Yemeni women have participated in both urban and rural mass demonstrations across the nation, and assisted behind the scenes in protesters’ camps by preparing food. During this transitional period, women are now faced with the challenge of continuing their presence in the day-to-day protests while becoming advocates for enduring women’s rights in Yemen.

Women’s political involvement and leadership can ensure their participation in decision-making about their communities and families. According to Mary Hope Schwoebel of the United States Institute of Peace, more and more Yemeni women feel compelled to contribute to the political changes in their country. However, research from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research (IWPR) and the International Federation of Electoral Systems (IFES) suggests that access to education, employment, health care, assets, independence, freedom of movement in public spaces, and political office is currently limited for many Yemini women.

Only seven percent of Yemeni women work for pay, compared to 61 percent of men. At the same time, over half (56 percent) of all women have no formal education; this creates a major obstacle for women’s independence and economic, civic, and political participation. And, although education rates are increasing among the younger generation of women, 55 percent of women 18-34 feel their freedom to leave the house without permission or supervision from parents or husbands or other male relatives is completely restricted–another barrier to women’s participation in public arenas.

IWPR and IFES research also indicates that many Yemenis are opposed to women holding political office. For example, one-third of Yemeni men (35 percent) and nearly one quarter (23 percent) of Yemeni women say they strongly or somewhat oppose female political candidates. At a workshop held in Cairo in December 2010 on IWPR-IFES research, Yemeni women emphasized that security dangers and conflict in many parts of their country have produced a situation in which often people would prefer that none of their family members, male or female, pursue public office.

Instead of formal political participation, some regional experts argue that Yemeni women will exercise most of their future leadership in the nongovernmental sector of Yemen; however, responses to the IWPR-IFES survey show that only a very small percentage of women, no more than 7 percent, report being members of civic and political organizations. In fact, compared to nearly 47 percent of Yemeni men, only five percent of women reported membership in political parties.

Women’s political empowerment and civic engagement need expansion if Yemini women are to fully participate in the future decision-making for their communities and society on all levels. Increased opportunities to participate in the public sphere will be crucial moving forward for women to remain central agents in and beyond the political transformational period, ultimately ensuring true social change.

Minjon Tholen is a Research Intern at the Institute for Women’s Policy Research


To view more of IWPR’s research, visit IWPR.org